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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population (N = 3607) stratified by diabetes status at follow up

From: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort study: effects of total and traffic-specific air pollution

  Participants without diabetes N = 3276 Participants with incident diabetes N = 331
Variable   
Men, % 47 56
Age [years], mean (SD) 58.8 (7.6) 60.5 (7.5)
BMI [kg/m2], mean (SD) 27.2 (4.2) 29.8 (4.7)
BMI > 25, % 69 87
BMI > 30, % 22 44
Hypertensiona, % 50 66
Non-Smokers, % 44 39
Smokers, % 22 21
Ex-smokers, % 34 40
Exercise >3 times per week, % 26 22
% unemployment rate in neighbourhood mean (SD) 12.4 (3.4) 12.6 (3.4)
Mülheim, % 38 37
Essen, % 34 33
Bochum, % 29 31
Occupational status   
Employed, % 45 34
Inactive, % 15 13
Pensioner, % 35 45
Unemployed, % 6 8
Education b   
Highest, % 13 6
High, % 23 21
Middle, % 55 63
Low, % 10 10
PM10 total [μg/m3], mean (SD) 20.8 (2.3) 20.9 (2.4)
PM2.5 total [μg/m3], mean (SD) 16.7 (1.4) 16.8 (1.5)
PM10 traffic [μg/m3], mean (SD) 0.8 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2)
PM2.5 traffic [μg/m3], mean (SD) 0.8 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2)
Distance to major road [m], mean (SD) 1021.4 (805.1) 1034.6 (830.5)
  1. N number of individuals, SD standard deviation,
  2. aHypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure  90 mmHg or intake of hypertensive medication
  3. bEducation: low: ≤10 years, middle 11–13 years, high: 14–17 years, highest:≥18 years