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Table 3 The percentage change (% Change) in antibody concentration at age 7 years when the PFAS concentration is doubled. Results are from multiple linear regressions for PFAS concentrations at age 7 years (6 models shown in row 1--2), structural equations models of latent individual PFAS measured by 5- and 7-year concentrations (6 models shown in row 3–4), and one structural equation model with all three latent PFASs (1 model shown in row 5–6). All models were adjusted for the covariates gender, age, and booster type

From: Structural equation modeling of immunotoxicity associated with exposure to perfluorinated alkylates

   PFOS PFOA PFHxS
Antibody N % Change 95 % CI % Change 95 % CI % Change 95 % CI
Linear regression:        
  Anti-diphtheria 443 −30.3 −47.3, −7.8 −25.4 −40.9, −5.8 −16.7 −30.8, 0.2
  Anti-tetanus 443 −9.1 −32.8, 23.0 −20.5 −38.2, 2.1 −22.3 −36.3, −5.2
SEMa (Additional file 1: Model 1)        
  Anti-diphtheria 448 −34.3 −52.8, −8.9 −34.7 −52.5, −10.2 −13.9 −27.9, 2.7
  Anti-tetanus 448 −16.3 −41.5, 19.3 −38.2 −56.1, −13.0 −18.7 −32.8, −1.7
SEM mutually adjustedb, Additional file 1: Model 2        
  Anti-diphtheria 448 −26.1 −49.4, 7.9 −26.9 −47.4, 1.5 1.7 −17.7, 25.8
  Anti-tetanus 448 18.7 −21.2, 78.7 −29.6 −50.6, 0.4 −15.0 −32.4, 6.8
  1. aSee Fig. 1. Goodness of fits: χ2-test P: 0.08–0.88, RMSEA: ≤ 0.01–0.06, CFI: 0.99–1.00, SRMR: 0.01–0.02
  2. bSee Additional file 1: Figure S2. Goodness of fits: χ2-test P: ≤ 0.01, RMSEA: 0.06, CFI: 0.99, SRMR: 0.03