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Table 2 Single pollutant percentiles of concentration (ng/m3), full pregnancy period, for ASD interviewed cases (n = 217) and controls (n = 224) and birth certificate cases (n = 216) and controls (n = 4,971)

From: Air toxics and the risk of autism spectrum disorder: the results of a population based case–control study in southwestern Pennsylvania

Class Compounds (Concentration In ng/m3) Cases (217) Controls (224) Cases (216) Second Controls (4,971)
25 50 75 25 50 75 25 50 75 25 50 75
Metal Compounds Arsenic 1.03 1.14 1.33 0.98 1.11 1.30 1.02 1.13 1.33 1.00 1.13 1.35
Cadmium 0.13 0.15 0.18 1.13 0.15 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.12 0.15 0.19
Chromium 1.59 1.80 2.40 1.54 1.74 2.06 1.58 1.79 2.30 1.55 1.79 2.18
Mercury 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.08
Manganese 1.71 2.10 2.38 1.78 2.08 2.27 1.66 2.07 2.36 1.71 2.08 2.30
Nickel 0.79 0.91 1.06 0.82 0.92 1.02 0.78 0.91 1.04 0.79 0.92 1.07
Lead 3.40 3.83 4.31 3.29 3.84 4.25 3.36 3.79 4.34 3.27 3.81 4.42
Selenium 0.35 0.45 0.52 0.38 0.47 0.55 0.36 0.46 0.53 0.32 0.46 0.53
Aromatic Solvents Benzene 870.78 1102.56 1283.58 823.05 1069.07 1252.91 883.78 1091.58 1289.37 823.50 1082.76 1313.56
Ethyl benzene 98.16 128.00 188.42 87.25 123.49 181.64 97.35 124.72 188.50 85.25 125.73 196.10
Styrene 25.22 33.46 51.39 22.82 30.82 40.34 24.43 32.46 50.52 23.67 33.53 48.71
Toluene 1588.52 2034.18 2501.53 1494.39 2008.97 2439.93 1637.27 2027.70 2536.57 1470.03 2032.16 2553.37
Xylenes 430.15 591.08 864.09 385.16 536.36 816.75 429.88 583.81 865.79 382.52 588.09 897.42
Chlorinated Solvents Methylene chloride 241.83 266.47 272.42 241.57 265.99 270.82 244.06 266.47 272.48 239.39 266.53 272.60
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 215.38 230.86 248.70 210.65 227.25 245.87 215.16 230.84 246.74 211.62 230.70 250.15
Perchloroethylene 99.77 216.12 266.51 100.31 215.36 262.03 100.08 214.81 267.36 93.71 209.17 265.98
Trichloroethylene 70.59 74.75 82.92 70.04 73.50 81.64 70.55 74.33 82.46 70.03 74.93 84.26
Vinyl chloride 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.12
Other HAPs Hydrazine 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.07
PAHs 8.85 12.09 15.87 8.65 11.02 14.60 8.85 12.41 15.72 8.34 12.19 15.70
Diesel PM 291.11 427.28 660.14 255.12 399.98 589.45 296.99 411.34 614.12 253.58 417.56 666.33
Allyl chloride <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Carbon disulfide 1.60 2.35 3.35 1.46 2.35 2.97 1.55 2.35 3.38 1.55 2.38 3.27
Cresol 3.38 4.11 4.56 3.33 4.02 4.49 3.44 4.11 4.52 3.30 4.08 4.58
Cumene 0.95 1.38 1.68 0.91 1.20 1.65 0.94 1.37 1.66 0.90 1.32 1.69
Cyanide 48.02 68.14 93.24 44.19 59.91 88.38 45.72 67.14 93.11 44.92 67.32 95.47
2,4-Dinitrotoluene <0.01 0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01
Ethylene oxide 3.48 3.98 4.64 3.37 3.96 4.54 3.48 3.94 4.57 3.40 3.97 4.77
Hexane 100.15 137.65 201.95 88.07 128.22 190.27 99.95 131.03 198.83 84.67 133.28 205.30
Methanol 197.44 273.58 408.06 183.92 253.36 348.18 191.54 272.65 396.41 189.02 277.16 403.32