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Table 3 Adjusted OR with 95 % CI for ASD associated with quartiles of exposure during pregnancy: interviewed cases (n = 217) and controls (n = 224) vs cases (n = 215) and birth certificate (BC) controls (n = 4856)a

From: Air toxics and the risk of autism spectrum disorder: the results of a population based case–control study in southwestern Pennsylvania

Pollutant Quartile (compared to 1) Interviewed Control Adjusted BC Control Adjusted
  OR Lower 95 % CI Upper 95 % CI p-value OR Lower 95 % CI Upper 95 % CI p-value
Metals          
 Arsenic 2 1.23 0.69 2.20 0.477 1.36 0.89 2.07 0.154
3 1.47 0.83 2.59 0.183 1.38 0.92 2.07 0.116
4 1.28 0.71 2.28 0.415 1.33 0.87 2.02 0.183
 Cadmium 2 1.07 0.61 1.86 0.817 1.17 0.79 1.73 0.443
3 0.93 0.53 1.63 0.799 1.01 0.68 1.49 0.967
4 0.93 0.53 1.64 0.804 1.15 0.78 1.70 0.466
 Chromium 2 1.14 0.64 2.03 0.664 1.29 0.84 1.96 0.240
3 1.14 0.64 2.03 0.651 1.28 0.85 1.95 0.240
4 1.52 0.87 2.66 0.139 1.60 1.08 2.38 0.020
 Mercury 2 0.64 0.36 1.11 0.112 0.79 0.54 1.17 0.250
3 1.01 0.59 1.71 0.986 1.06 0.74 1.51 0.744
4 0.60 0.34 1.06 0.079 0.75 0.51 1.13 0.169
 Manganese 2 0.77 0.44 1.36 0.370 0.94 0.64 1.40 0.770
3 0.75 0.43 1.32 0.321 0.92 0.62 1.36 0.665
4 1.10 0.64 1.90 0.733 1.22 0.84 1.76 0.295
 Nickel 2 0.87 0.51 1.50 0.622 1.08 0.74 1.56 0.700
3 0.49 0.27 0.89 0.018 0.87 0.57 1.32 0.516
4 0.76 0.44 1.31 0.317 0.93 0.65 1.35 0.718
 Lead 2 1.33 0.77 2.32 0.311 1.41 0.96 2.08 0.080
3 0.82 0.45 1.49 0.515 1.54 1.00 2.38 0.049
4 1.10 0.63 1.94 0.734 1.33 0.90 1.97 0.158
 Selenium 2 0.72 0.42 1.25 0.247 0.97 0.66 1.43 0.880
3 0.93 0.54 1.58 0.776 1.21 0.85 1.74 0.292
4 0.59 0.33 1.05 0.071 0.80 0.53 1.20 0.285
Aromatic Solvents          
 Benzene 2 0.98 0.55 1.73 0.938 1.10 0.73 1.66 0.651
3 1.12 0.64 1.95 0.690 1.46 0.98 2.18 0.059
4 1.08 0.62 1.90 0.786 1.21 0.81 1.81 0.346
 Ethyl benzene 2 0.92 0.52 1.62 0.763 1.15 0.76 1.74 0.498
3 1.04 0.60 1.81 0.891 1.38 0.92 2.05 0.116
4 1.16 0.66 2.03 0.609 1.23 0.84 1.82 0.291
 Styrene 2 1.29 0.72 2.31 0.396 1.74 1.15 2.65 0.009
3 1.09 0.60 1.98 0.784 1.11 0.71 1.75 0.648
4 2.04 1.17 3.58 0.013 1.61 1.08 2.40 0.018
 Toluene 2 0.97 0.55 1.70 0.914 1.26 0.84 1.90 0.262
3 1.02 0.58 1.77 0.955 1.54 1.03 2.28 0.033
4 0.98 0.55 1.72 0.930 1.20 0.80 1.79 0.376
 Xylenes 2 0.76 0.42 1.36 0.352 1.12 0.73 1.73 0.593
3 1.25 0.72 2.15 0.427 1.35 0.92 1.98 0.121
4 1.04 0.59 1.83 0.895 1.23 0.83 1.83 0.310
Chlorinated Solvents          
 Methylene chloride 2 1.02 0.58 1.78 0.958 1.13 0.75 1.71 0.548
3 0.80 0.45 1.42 0.446 1.15 0.77 1.72 0.497
4 1.07 0.61 1.85 0.822 1.41 0.96 2.07 0.082
 Trichloroethane 2 1.25 0.71 2.21 0.447 1.16 0.77 1.75 0.485
3 1.22 0.69 2.15 0.493 1.16 0.78 1.73 0.467
4 1.22 0.68 2.17 0.509 1.23 0.82 1.85 0.323
 Perchloroethylene 2 0.91 0.53 1.58 0.743 1.19 0.80 1.75 0.388
3 0.93 0.53 1.62 0.791 1.14 0.76 1.71 0.530
4 0.92 0.52 1.63 0.778 1.14 0.77 1.69 0.515
 Trichloroethylene 2 1.00 0.57 1.76 0.996 1.23 0.81 1.85 0.331
3 1.09 0.62 1.91 0.770 1.17 0.80 1.72 0.416
4 1.04 0.59 1.84 0.902 1.18 0.79 1.76 0.423
 Vinyl chloride 2 0.99 0.56 1.74 0.962 1.00 0.67 1.49 0.991
3 1.02 0.58 1.79 0.950 1.03 0.68 1.56 0.879
4 1.18 0.67 2.07 0.561 1.06 0.72 1.56 0.782
Other HAPs          
 Hydrazine 2 0.71 0.42 1.17 0.178 0.62 0.28 1.39 0.248
3 1.23 0.62 2.44 0.559 1.04 0.74 1.46 0.813
4 0.82 0.47 1.44 0.492 1.23 0.83 1.84 0.304
 PAHs 2 1.10 0.62 1.95 0.738 1.41 0.92 2.16 0.112
3 1.01 0.57 1.79 0.973 1.27 0.85 1.90 0.251
4 1.33 0.76 2.32 0.323 1.44 0.98 2.11 0.064
 Diesel PM 2 1.15 0.66 2.00 0.634 1.38 0.93 2.06 0.112
3 1.00 0.57 1.77 0.992 1.30 0.86 1.96 0.210
4 1.04 0.59 1.84 0.887 1.25 0.83 1.87 0.282
 Allyl chloride 2 0.75 0.41 1.34 0.328 1.13 0.75 1.71 0.548
3 1.15 0.66 1.99 0.628 1.28 0.86 1.88 0.221
4 1.26 0.73 2.17 0.405 1.17 0.80 1.70 0.424
 Carbon disulfide 2 1.36 0.78 2.37 0.281 1.13 0.76 1.67 0.558
3 0.79 0.44 1.45 0.451 0.82 0.53 1.27 0.371
4 1.28 0.74 2.24 0.382 1.20 0.82 1.76 0.349
 Cresols 2 0.86 0.49 1.53 0.611 1.12 0.74 1.69 0.591
3 1.03 0.60 1.79 0.904 1.31 0.88 1.94 0.183
4 1.05 0.60 1.85 0.854 1.18 0.79 1.76 0.424
 Cumene 2 0.93 0.52 1.66 0.804 1.27 0.83 1.95 0.278
3 1.43 0.82 2.48 0.205 1.33 0.91 1.93 0.143
4 1.01 0.57 1.79 0.975 1.36 0.91 2.05 0.138
 Cyanide 2 1.20 0.67 2.14 0.550 0.90 0.58 1.40 0.637
3 1.42 0.81 2.49 0.218 1.17 0.80 1.71 0.430
4 1.19 0.67 2.12 0.546 1.36 0.92 2.01 0.123
 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 2 0.73 0.40 1.31 0.288 1.11 0.73 1.69 0.618
3 1.18 0.68 2.03 0.566 1.35 0.92 1.98 0.130
4 1.25 0.73 2.16 0.422 1.19 0.81 1.74 0.373
 Ethylene Oxide 2 1.36 0.78 2.38 0.277 1.11 0.76 1.63 0.588
3 1.13 0.64 2.00 0.686 1.08 0.72 1.62 0.710
4 1.04 0.58 1.87 0.885 0.97 0.65 1.46 0.890
 Hexane 2 0.90 0.51 1.60 0.718 1.23 0.82 1.85 0.313
3 1.04 0.60 1.81 0.891 1.28 0.86 1.90 0.228
4 1.12 0.64 1.96 0.689 1.27 0.86 1.87 0.239
 Methanol 2 1.08 0.60 1.92 0.805 0.87 0.57 1.33 0.520
3 1.31 0.74 2.29 0.353 1.21 0.82 1.79 0.328
4 1.29 0.73 2.26 0.379 1.10 0.74 1.63 0.642
Index Scores          
 Metals 2 0.69 0.39 1.23 0.209 0.96 0.65 1.42 0.842
3 0.76 0.45 1.27 0.295 1.03 0.70 1.50 0.889
4 0.93 0.53 1.63 0.790 1.17 0.80 1.70 0.423
 Aromatic Solvents 2 0.81 0.47 1.40 0.447 1.17 0.79 1.73 0.446
3 1.16 0.66 2.04 0.599 1.45 0.98 2.16 0.064
4 1.10 0.63 1.93 0.745 1.20 0.81 1.78 0.368
 Chlorinated Solvents 2 0.88 0.50 1.55 0.653 1.15 0.76 1.73 0.512
3 1.00 0.58 1.73 1.000 1.10 0.75 1.62 0.609
4 0.99 0.56 1.75 0.967 1.21 0.81 1.79 0.357
  1. aAll births, adjusted for mother’s age, education, race, smoking, child’s birth year (continuous), and child’s sex