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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by time point of urine collection

From: Arsenic exposure is associated with pediatric pneumonia in rural Bangladesh: a case control study

  Controls Cases
    Hospital Admission time point Convalescent time point
  % N % N p-valuea % N p-valueb
Number of children   296   201    153  
Urinary arsenic concentration (μg/L) (Median (Interquartile Range)) 14.0 (4.5–41.0) 296 24.0 (8.0–64.0) 201 <0.0001 16.0 (7.0–48.0) 153 0.26
Urinary creatinine concentration (mg/ dl) (Median (Interquartile Range)) 22.4 (13.1–38.4) 296 48.1 (26.0–77.5) 201 <0.0001 19.1 (11.5–35.2) 153 0.14
Gender
 Female 54 % 161 57 % 115 0.01 64 % 98 0.01
Age (Months)
Median (Interquartile Range) (Months) 10.0 (5.0–20.0) 296 13.0 (6.0–23.0) 201 0.88 12.0 (6.0–22.0) 153 0.90
 0–5 33 % 99 25 % 50   24 % 36  
 6–11 18 % 53 28 % 56   23 % 35  
 12–23 27 % 80 25 % 50   32 % 49  
 24–59 22 % 64 22 % 45   22 % 33  
Breastfed in the prior week
 Exclusive 24 % 71 23 % 45 0.33 22 % 33 0.50
 Mixed 55 % 161 56 % 112   59 % 89  
 None 21 % 61 22 % 43   20 % 30  
Case definition
 Severe pneumonia 89 % 179   88 % 135  
 Very severe pneumonia 11 % 22   12 % 18  
WHO weight for height
 z-score less than −2 SDs 11 % 33 21 % 43 0.002 20 % 31 0.01
 z-score greater or equal to −2 SDs 89 % 259 79 % 158   80 % 122  
Paternal education
 No formal education 12 % 35 18 % 36 0.07 18 % 28 0.03
 1–5 years 21 % 61 20 % 41   22 % 34  
 5–10 years 47 % 139 49 % 99   49 % 75  
 Greater than 10 years 20 % 59 12 % 25   10 % 16  
Number of individuals living in household (Median (Interquartile Range)) 5 (4–7) 296 5 (4–6) 201 0.05 5 (4–6) 153 0.10
Main source of drinking waterc
 Piped water 1 % 4 2 % 5 0.76 3 % 5 0.69
 Tube well 98 % 288 95 % 191   72 % 145  
 River, stream, pond, lake 1 % 4 2 % 4   2 % 3  
 Other 0 % 0 <1 % 1   0 % 0  
Floor of household
 Natural floor (sand/earth/dung) 79 % 233 86 % 173 0.04 86 % 131 0.08
 Finished floor (wood/tiles/cement/carpet) 21 % 63 14 % 28   14 % 22  
Time-lapsed between hospital admission and urine collection in hours (Median (Interquartile Range)) 0.75 (0.5–1.1) 290 3.2 (2.1–5.0) 193 <0.0001
  1. aControl and case at admission time point compared using a two sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  2. bControl and case at convalescent time point compared using a two sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. cTub well compared to all other drinking water sources