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Table 4 Crude and adjusted odds ratios of case and control urine samples at the hospital admission timepoint (without urinary creatinine adjustment)*

From: Arsenic exposure is associated with pediatric pneumonia in rural Bangladesh: a case control study

Hospital Admission Time point
All pneumonia cases (severe and very severe)
Total urinary arsenic (μg/L) Case urine samples (N = 153) Control urine samples (N = 296) Crude OR 95 % CI Adjusted OR 95 % CI
  No. % No. %     
 0–5.9 23 15 % 85 29 % 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 6.0–16.9 37 24 % 77 26 % 1.78 0.97, 3.25 2.38 1.25, 4.53
 17.0–50.9 43 28 % 69 23 % 2.30 1.27, 4.19 3.77 1.88, 7.56
 Greater or equal to 51.0 50 33 % 65 22 % 2.84 1.58, 5.13 4.72 2.30, 9.67
Only severe pneumonia cases (sensitivity analysis)
Total urinary arsenic (μg/L) Case urine samples (N = 153) Control urine samples (N = 296) Crude OR 95 % CI Adjusted OR 95 % CI
  No. % No. %     
 0–5.9 17 13 % 85 29 % 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 6.0–16.9 35 26 % 77 26 % 2.27 1.18, 4.38 2.87 1.44, 5.72
 17.0–50.9 38 28 % 69 23 % 2.75 1.43, 5.30 4.10 1.95, 8.63
 Greater or equal to 51.0 45 33 % 65 22 % 3.46 1.82, 6.60 5.28 2.47, 11.26
  1. *Odds ratio were adjusted for weight for height (z-score less than −2 SDs and z-score greater or equal to −2 SDs), breastfeeding in the prior week (exclusive, mixed, none), paternal education, age, and number of people living in the household (log transformed)