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Table 3 Estimated rate ratios (RRs)a and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of childhood cancers (0–4 years of age) associated with cropland density overall and by crop type in six Midwestern states, 2004-2008

From: Agricultural crop density and risk of childhood cancer in the midwestern United States: an ecologic study

Crop Crop density (%)b Total leukemia ALL AML CNS/PNS CNSc PNSc
Agricultural  31.0–57.6 0.75 (0.63, 0.89) 0.80 (0.65, 0.98) 0.74 (0.45, 1.23) 1.04 (0.85, 1.28) 1.16 (0.85, 1.59) 1.00 (0.74, 1.34)
Land  57.7–73.9 0.89 (0.71, 1.12) 0.93 (0.71, 1.20) 0.64 (0.32, 1.30) 1.15 (0.89, 1.48) 1.16 (0.80, 1.69) 1.14 (0.76, 1.72)
   >73.9 1.01 (0.77, 1.31) 1.05 (0.78, 1.42) 0.64 (0.27, 1.53) 1.17 (0.87, 1.58) 1.27 (0.83, 1.94) 1.03 (0.64, 1.68)
  Continuous 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
  Median (>/≤) 1.05 (0.88, 1.25) 1.02 (0.83, 1.26) 0.88 (0.51, 1.52) 1.13 (0.93, 1.38) 1.09 (0.82, 1.46) 1.11 (0.78, 1.56)
Barleyd  0.001–0.015 0.91 (0.75, 1.11) 0.91 (0.73, 1.15) 0.97 (0.57, 1.65) 0.96 (0.77, 1.20) 0.99 (0.68, 1.43) 0.96 (0.67, 1.38)
   >0.015 0.99 (0.80, 1.22) 0.94 (0.74, 1.19) 1.31 (0.75. 2.30) 0.90 (0.74, 1.09) 0.78 (0.57, 1.06) 1.20 (0.88, 1.65)
  Continuous 0.40 (0.04, 4.28) 0.11 (0.01, 2.90) 111.96
(0.94, 13334.27)
0.25 (0.02, 3.48) 0.08 (0.01, 10.67) 3.28 (0.09, 115.07)
  Any/None 0.92 (0.78, 1.07) 0.91 (0.76, 1.09) 1.04 (0.67, 1.61) 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) 0.93 (0.72, 1.22) 1.07 (0.81, 1.41)
Beans  0.002–0.036 0.88 (0.69, 1.13) 0.88 (0.65, 1.19) 0.99 (0.57, 1.74) 0.87 (0.68, 1.11) 0.81 (0.55, 1.21) 0.76 (0.53, 1.08)
(dry)e,f  >0.036 1.08 (0.88, 1.32) 0.99 (0.77, 1.26) 1.73 (1.07, 2.78) 0.96 (0.73, 1.26) 0.79 (0.53, 1.16) 1.09 (0.73, 1.62)
  Continuous 1.09 (1.03, 1.14) 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) 0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 1.03 (0.96, 1.11) 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 1.05 (0.96, 1.16)
  Any/None 0.97 (0.80, 1.16) 0.93 (0.74, 1.16) 1.28 (0.85, 1.91) 0.91 (0.74, 1.12) 0.80 (0.57, 1.12) 0.91 (0.67, 1.24)
Corn  4.8–19.1 0.85 (0.70, 1.03) 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) 0.91 (0.51, 1.62) 1.03 (0.82, 1.30) 0.92 (0.64, 1.34) 1.24 (0.86, 1.78)
   19.2–32.6 0.75 (0.60, 0.95) 0.75 (0.58, 0.99) 0.86 (0.40, 1.84) 1.01 (0.77, 1.32) 0.93 (0.64, 1.36) 1.24 (0.81, 1.90)
   >32.6 1.11 (0.81, 1.51) 1.06 (0.75, 1.50) 1.01 (0.35, 2.91) 1.16 (0.80, 1.67) 1.02 (0.58, 1.78) 1.55 (0.81, 2.95)
  Continuous 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.99 (0.97, 1.02) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
  Median (>/≤) 0.89 (0.74, 1.06) 0.90 (0.73, 1.10) 0.84 (0.44, 1.58) 0.98 (0.80, 1.20) 0.98 (0.73, 1.33) 1.07 (0.78, 1.48)
Hay  1.6–2.8 0.87 (0.71, 1.08) 0.91 (0.72, 1.16) 0.71 (0.37, 1.38) 1.03 (0.81, 1.32) 1.16 (0.81, 1.65) 1.09 (0.70, 1.69)
   2.9–5.8 1.11 (0.91, 1.35) 1.08 (0.86, 1.37) 1.20 (0.63, 2.30) 1.09 (0.86, 1.38) 1.16 (0.82, 1.65) 1.02 (0.67, 1.54)
   >5.8 0.93 (0.70, 1.23) 0.95 (0.68, 1.31) 1.20 (0.59, 2.46) 0.92 (0.67, 1.26) 0.96 (0.61, 1.50) 1.04 (0.63, 1.74)
  Continuous 1.00 (0.98, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.03 (0.97, 1.10) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)
  Median (>/≤) 1.16 (0.99, 1.35) 1.11 (0.93, 1.33) 1.47 (0.92, 2.26) 1.03 (0.86, 1.23) 1.15 (0.88, 1.50) 0.84 (0.64, 1.12)
Oats  0.02–0.07 0.91 (0.74, 1.12) 0.90 (0.72, 1.13) 0.80 (0.44, 1.44) 1.03 (0.82, 1.30) 1.32 (0.89, 1.95) 0.87 (0.60, 1.28)
   0.08–0.18 0.79 (0.63, 0.99) 0.73 (0.56, 0.95) 0.97 (0.55, 1.72) 0.97 (0.77, 1.23) 1.11 (0.76, 1.60) 1.15 (0.75, 1.75)
   >0.18 0.91 (0.75, 1.11) 0.82 (0.65, 1.02) 1.34 (0.76, 2.38) 1.03 (0.80, 1.32) 1.10 (0.75, 1.60) 1.30 (0.86, 1.97)
  Continuous 0.89 (0.64, 1.22) 0.66 (0.44, 0.98) 2.03 (1.25, 3.28) 0.92 (0.67, 1.25) 0.90 (0.52, 1.55) 1.06 (0.67, 1.67)
  Median (>/≤) 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 0.81 (0.67, 0.98) 1.24 (0.79, 1.96) 0.98 (0.82, 1.18) 0.90 (0.68, 1.20) 1.23 (0.89, 1.71)
Sorghumg  0.001–0.051 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 0.96 (0.77, 1.18) 1.24 (0.75, 2.03) 1.06 (0.86, 1.29) 1.18 (0.88, 1.57) 0.85 (0.62, 1.16)
   >0.051 0.92 (0.70, 1.22) 0.90 (0.65, 1.24) 1.52 (0.74, 3.09) 1.02 (0.75, 1.39) 0.67 (0.39, 1.18) 1.01 (0.66, 1.54)
  Continuous 0.71 (0.53, 0.95) 0.79 (0.56, 1.12) 0.65 (0.34, 1.26) 0.89 (0.63, 1.24) 0.80 (0.41, 1.58) 0.89 (0.58, 1.38)
  Any/None 0.94 (0.80, 1.11) 0.93 (0.77, 1.12) 0.97 (0.61, 1.55) 0.99 (0.84, 1.18) 1.06 (0.82, 1.37) 0.81 (0.62, 1.06)
Soybeans  6.01–20.12 0.79 (0.66, 0.96) 0.80 (0.64, 0.99) 0.86 (0.52, 1.42) 1.01 (0.82, 1.25) 0.86 (0.62, 1.21) 1.23 (0.90, 1.66)
   20.13–29.99 0.83 (0.66, 1.04) 0.86 (0.66, 1.12) 0.80 (0.42, 1.50) 1.07 (0.82, 1.40) 1.03 (0.72, 1.49) 1.06 (0.72, 1.56)
   >30.00 0.90 (0.70, 1.16) 0.88 (0.66, 1.18) 0.72 (0.32, 1.62) 0.97 (0.73, 1.29) 0.87 (0.60, 1.28) 1.07 (0.66, 1.74)
  Continuous 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 0.99 (0.97, 1.02) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02)
  Median (>/≤) 0.99 (0.85, 1.16) 1.01 (0.84, 1.21) 0.86 (0.52, 1.40) 1.01 (0.84, 1.23) 1.08 (0.82, 1.41) 0.93 (0.69, 1.26)
Sugar  0.002–0.160 0.85 (0.61, 1.17) 0.87 (0.61, 1.25) 1.13 (0.47, 2.71) 0.90 (0.61, 1.32) 0.76 (0.44, 1.31) 1.15 (0.63, 2.10)
beetsh,i  >0.160 1.24 (0.80, 1.92) 1.26 (0.78, 2.03) 1.30 (0.49, 3.43) 1.00 (0.66, 1.53) 0.77 (0.42, 1.41) 1.45 (0.90, 2.33)
  Continuous 1.11 (1.04, 1.19) 1.11 (1.02, 1.21) 1.01 (0.78, 1.30) 1.05 (0.94, 1.17) 1.01 (0.85, 1.20) 1.10 (0.99, 1.23)
  Any/None 1.04 (0.75, 1.43) 1.06 (0.75, 1.49) 1.22 (0.58, 2.55) 0.95 (0.69, 1.30) 0.76 (0.48, 1.20) 1.30 (0.84, 2.00)
Wheat  0.10–0.71 1.13 (0.85, 1.51) 0.92 (0.67, 1.26) 2.32 (1.05, 5.12) 1.24 (0.89, 1.73) 1.20 (0.77, 1.86) 0.96 (0.58, 1.60)
   0.72–2.04 0.88 (0.67, 1.17) 0.78 (0.57, 1.08) 1.51 (0.64, 3.55) 1.16 (0.82, 1.63) 1.01 (0.66, 1.53) 1.12 (0.68, 1.84)
   >2.04 0.90 (0.68, 1.19) 0.76 (0.56, 1.04) 1.69 (0.73, 3.94) 1.06 (0.75, 1.49) 0.98 (0.64, 1.48) 1.06 (0.64, 1.76)
  Continuous 0.97 (0.94, 0.99) 0.97 (0.93, 1.00) 0.98 (0.90, 1.08) 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) 0.99 (0.94, 1.03) 0.98 (0.93, 1.03)
  Median (>/≤) 0.81 (0.69, 0.95) 0.83 (0.68, 1.00) 0.83 (0.52, 1.31) 0.94 (0.77, 1.13) 0.89 (0.67, 1.19) 1.08 (0.81, 1.543
  1. aModels were restricted to counties with <300,000 people and adjusted for sex, race (white, black, other), year of diagnosis, state of residence at diagnosis, median household income, population density, and education. County was treated as a repeated measure. bCrop density quartiles except for barley, dry beans, sorghum, and sugar beets for which non-zero values were categorized as ≤ median and > median. Continuous RR is per one unit change of crop density. cIndiana was not included in these models. d42.7 % of barley measures were 0. e Illinois not included in this model. f74.3 % of dry bean measures were 0. g46.9 % of sorghum measures were 0. hMichigan and Ohio only. i79.6 % of sugar beet measures were 0