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Table 3 Mixed linear effects models estimating percent changes in HRV measures according to one standard deviation increases in BC and PM2.5 levelsa,b

From: Exposure to sub-chronic and long-term particulate air pollution and heart rate variability in an elderly cohort: the Normative Aging Study

Exposure duration HRV parameter BC PM2.5
   % change 95 % CI % change 95 % CI
3 days HF −2.1 −4.8, 0.6 −35.5 −63.0, 12.5
  LF −1.0 −3.3, 1.4 −31.7 −57.5, 9.5
  SDNN −0.4 −1.5, 0.8 −11.5 −29.6, 11.4
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.1 −0.6, 2.9 6.5 −25.4, 52.0
7 days HF −1.9 −4.3, 0.6 4.3 −31.2, 58.2
  LF −0.7 −2.8, 1.5 9.4 −23.4, 56.1
  SDNN −0.4 −1.4, 0.6 3.1 −13.2, 22.4
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.1 −0.5, 2.7 4.4 20.1, 36.4
14 days HF −2.2 −4.5, 0.3 1.1 −30.5, 47.1
  LF −0.9 −2.9, 1.2 15.6 −16.2, 59.4
  SDNN −0.4 −1.4, 0.6 6.6 −8.7, 24.5
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.3 −0.3, 2.9 13.1 −10.8, 43.5
21 days HF −2.2 −4.4, 0.1 −6.8 −34.5, 32.6
  LF −1.2 −3.2, 0.9 15.0 −15.0, 55.6
  SDNN −0.6 −1.6, 0.4 6.8 −7.6, 23.5
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.1 −0.5, 2.7 21.6 −2.7, 51.9
28 days HF −2.3 −4.6, −0.02 −8.2 −34.8, 29.2
  LF −1.0 −3.0, 1.0 22.4 −8.6, 64.1
  SDNN −0.5 −1.5, 0.4 7.8 −6.3, 24.0
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.3 −0.2, 2.8 31.4 5.9, 63.0
56 days HF −2.3 −4.6, −0.1 −13.1 −34.6, 15.4
  LF −1.0 −3.0, 1.0 11.2 −13.0, 42.0
  SDNN −0.7 −1.6, 0.3 2.5 −8.9, 15.4
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.3 −0.2, 2.8 25.0 4.5, 49.6
84 days HF −2.0 −4.2, 0.2 −2.6 −24.3, 25.4
  LF −0.9 −2.8, 1.1 16.1 −6.6, 44.1
  SDNN −0.7 −1.6, 0.3 6.0 −4.5, 17.7
  Ratio (LF:HF) 1.2 −0.3, 2.6 16.2 −1.0, 36.5
1 year HF −0.3 −2.1, 1.6 1.7 −14.6, 21.2
  LF −0.2 −1.7, 1.4 23.6 6.0, 44.1
  SDNN −0.1 −0.9, 0.7 7.0 −0.5, 15.1
  Ratio (LF:HF) 0.04 −1.1, 1.2 21.0 8.6, 34.8
  1. BC black carbon, HF high frequency, LF low frequency, PM 2.5 particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter, SD standard deviation, SDNN standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals
  2. aSpecifically, we evaluated associations between percent change in HRV and 1 SD increases in BC (1161 visits) and PM2.5 (992 visits)
  3. bStudy visits with information on BC spanned 2000 and 2011. Study visits with information on PM2.5 spanned 2003 and 2011