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Table 1 Maternal Characteristics, Ohio 2007–2010

From: Exposure to airborne particulate matter during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth: a population-based cohort study

  Preterm (%) N = 19,027 Term (%) N = 205,894 p-value Total births (%) N = 224,921
Demographic factors     
 Advanced maternal age     
  35 – 39 years 1901 (10.0) 19,302 (9.4) <0.01 21,203 (9.4)
  ≥40 years 482 (2.5) 3952 (1.9)   4434 (2.0)
 Race and ethnicity     
  Non-Hispanic White 9940 (52.7) 127,636 (62.6) <0.01 137,576 (61.2)
  Non-Hispanic Black 7507 (39.8) 59,630 (29.2)   67,137 (30.1)
  Hispanic 937 (5.0) 10,583 (5.2)   11,520 (5.2)
  Other 457 (2.4) 6.116 (3.0)   6573 (2.9)
Social behaviors & socioeconomic factors     
 Education     
  Less than high school 4778 (25.4) 40,658 (19.9) <0.01 45,436 (20.4)
  High school graduate 5127 (27.3) 50,721 (24.9)   55,848 (25.1)
  Some postsecondary 8875 (47.3) 112,590 (55.2)   121,465 (54.5)
 Tobacco use 4568 (24.0) 38,292 (18.6) <0.01 42,860 (19.1)
 Medicaid insurance 9672 (50.8) 87,631 (42.6) <0.01 97,303 (43.3)
Prenatal care initiation     
 First trimester 8051 (61.6) 103,232 (67.7) <0.01 111,283 (67.2)
 Second trimester 3219 (24.6) 36,882 (24.2)   40,101 (24.2)
 Third trimester 708 (5.4) 7897 (5.2)   8605 (5.2)
 No prenatal care 1092 (8.4) 4422 (2.9)   5514 (3.3)
Year of birth     
 2007 5234 (27.5) 55,325 (26.9) 0.01 60,559 (26.9)
 2008 4969 (26.1) 52,708 (25.6)   57,677 (25.6)
 2009 4600 (24.2) 50,364 (24.5)   54,964 (24.4)
 2010 4225 (22.2) 47,497 (23.1)   51,721 (23.0)
Season     
 Winter 4755 (25.0) 50,205 (24.4) 0.26 54,960 (24.4)
 Spring 4787 (25.1) 51,827 (25.2)   56,614 (25.2)
 Summer 4835 (25.4) 53,173 (25.8)   58,008 (25.8)
 Fall 4650 (24.4) 50,689 (24.6)   55,339 (24.6)
  1. Dichotomous variables for first 2 columns are presented as percent of total for each characteristic
  2. Continuous variables are presented as median (IQR) for non-normally distributed data and mean +/- standard deviation for normally distributed data