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Table 3 Association between urban metrics and premature mortality from all causes and mortality due to CVD and traffic accidents

From: Associations between urban metrics and mortality rates in England

Urban metrics Model 1 (adjusted for age) Model 2 (additionally adjusted for deprivation and lung cancer mortality)
RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI)
  Female (<65) Male (<65) Female (<65) Male (<65)
  All-cause mortality   
Population density T2 1.09 [1.07 – 1.11]* 1.12 [1.10 – 1.14]* 1.02 [0.99 – 1.04] 1.01 [0.99 – 1.02]
T3 1.17 [1.15 – 1.19]* 1.19 [1.18 – 1.21]* 1.10 [1.09 – 1.13]* 1.09 [1.07 – 1.10]*
Minor Road Density T2 1.13 [1.11 – 1.15]* 1.15 [1.14 – 1.17]* 1.03 [1.00 – 1.05]* 1.01 [0.99 – 1.03]
T3 1.18 [1.16 – 1.20]* 1.21 [1.19 – 1.23]* 1.07 [1.05 – 1.09]* 1.07 [1.05 – 1.09]*
Junction Density T2 1.10 [1.08 – 1.12]* 1.09 [1.07 – 1.10]* 1.09 [1.06 – 1.11]* 1.07 [1.05 – 1.08]*
T3 1.20 [1.18 – 1.22]* 1.23 [1.21 – 1.24]* 1.12 [1.10 – 1.15]* 1.12 [1.10 – 1.14]*
% pop close to road T2 1.02 [1.00 – 1.03] 1.02 [1.01 – 1.03]* 1.01 [0.99 – 1.03] 1.00 [0.98 – 1.01]
T3 1.15 [1.13 – 1.17]* 1.15 [1.14 – 1.17]* 1.07 [1.05 – 1.09]* 1.05 [1.03 – 1.07]*
Shannon Diversity T2 1.02 [1.01 – 1.04]* 1.02 [1.01 – 1.04]* 0.99 [0.97 – 1.00] 1.00 [0.98 – 1.01]
T3 0.96 [0.94 – 0.97]* 0.95 [0.94 – 0.97]* 0.97 [0.95 – 0.99] 0.99 [0.97 – 1.00]
Altitude T2 1.09 [1.07 – 1.11]* 1.09 [1.08 – 1.11]* 1.02 [1.00 – 1.04] 1.01 [0.99 – 1.03]
T3 1.05 [1.03 – 1.07]* 1.09 [1.07 – 1.10]* 0.97 [0.95 – 0.99]* 0.98 [0.97 – 1.00]
  CVD mortality   
Population density T2 1.15 [1.10 – 1.21]* 1.17 [1.14 – 1.21]* 1.04 [0.99 – 1.09] 1.04 [1.01 – 1.07]*
T3 1.22 [1.16 – 1.27]* 1.21 [1.17 – 1.24]* 1.13 [1.07 – 1.18]* 1.10 [1.06 – 1.13]*
Minor Road Density T2 1.21 [1.16 – 1.27]* 1.21 [1.18 – 1.25]* 1.05 [1.00 – 1.11] 1.05 [1.01 – 1.09]*
T3 1.27 [1.21 – 1.33]* 1.24 [1.21 – 1.28]* 1.10 [1.05 – 1.16]* 1.09 [1.06 – 1.13]*
Junction Density T2 1.13 [1.08 – 1.18]* 1.10 [1.07 – 1.13]* 1.12 [1.07 – 1.18]* 1.09 [1.06 – 1.12]*
T3 1.23 [1.22 – 1.32]* 1.23 [1.20 – 1.26]* 1.16 [1.10 – 1.22]* 1.12 [1.09 – 1.16]*
% pop close to road T2 1.03 [0.98 – 1.07] 1.01 [0.98 – 1.04] 1.01 [0.96 – 1.06] 0.98 [0.95 – 1.01]
T3 1.17 [1.12 – 1.21]* 1.15 [1.12 – 1.18]* 1.04 [1.00 – 1.09] 1.04 [1.01 – 1.07]*
Shannon Diversity T2 1.03 [0.99 – 1.07] 1.04 [1.02 – 1.07]* 0.97 [0.93 – 1.01] 1.02 [0.99 – 1.04]
T3 0.94 [0.90 – 0.99]* 0.94 [0.91 – 0.96]* 0.95 [0.91 – 1.00] 0.97 [0.94 – 1.00]
Altitude T2 1.14 [1.09 – 1.20]* 1.10 [1.07 – 1.13]* 1.04 [0.99 – 1.09] 1.02 [0.99 – 1.05]
T3 1.11 [1.07 – 1.16]* 1.12 [1.09 – 1.15]* 1.00 [0.96 – 1.05] 1.01 [0.98 – 1.04]
  Traffic accident mortality   
Population density T2 0.90 [0.74 – 1.09] 0.92 [0.84 – 1.01] 0.90 [0.73 – 1.11] 0.91 [0.82 – 1.00]
T3 0.77 [0.63 – 0.95]* 0.79 [0.72 – 0.87]* 0.75 [0.60 – 0.93]* 0.77 [0.70 – 0.85]*
Minor Road Density T2 0.84 [0.70 – 1.02] 0.91 [0.83 – 1.00] 0.83 [0.66 – 1.05] 0.87 [0.78 – 0.97]*
T3 0.76 [0.63 – 0.93]* 0.77 [0.70 – 0.84]* 0.75 [0.60 – 0.93]* 0.71 [0.64 – 0.78]*
Junction Density T2 0.93 [0.76 – 1.13] 1.04 [0.95 – 1.14] 0.93 [0.75 – 1.15] 0.99 [0.89 – 1.10]
T3 0.93 [0.77 – 1.11] 0.91 [0.84 – 1.00]* 0.90 [0.72 – 1.13] 0.81 [0.73 – 0.91]*
% pop close to road T2 0.73 [0.60 – 0.88]* 0.95 [0.87 – 1.04] 0.68 [0.55 – 0.85]* 0.98 [0.89 – 1.09]
T3 0.86 [0.72 – 1.03] 0.89 [0.82 – 0.97]* 0.87 [0.72 – 1.05] 0.86 [0.78 – 0.95]*
Shannon Diversity T2 1.08 [0.91 – 1.30] 1.09 [1.00 – 1.19]* 1.13 [0.93 – 1.40] 1.09 [1.00 – 1.19]*
T3 1.36 [1.11 – 1.66]* 1.18 [1.07 – 1.30]* 1.39 [1.12 – 1.73]* 1.22 [1.10 – 1.35]*
Altitude T2 0.68 [0.55 – 0.83]* 0.77 [0.70 – 0.85]* 0.66 [0.54 – 0.82]* 0.74 [0.67 – 0.82]*
T3 0.79 [0.66 – 0.95]* 0.94 [0.86 – 1.03] 0.80 [0.66 – 0.98]* 0.94 [0.85 – 1.04]
  1. *p < 0.05