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Table 3 Cox proportional HRs for non-accidental mortalitya in the cohort, with stepwise addition of covariates

From: Risk estimates of mortality attributed to low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter in the Canadian community health survey cohort

   95 % CI  
  HRb Lower Upper (−2) log l
Unadjusted 1.028 0.981 1.077 447,246
SES covariates added separately     
  Immigrant status *1.069 1.019 1.120 447,165
  Visible minority status 1.031 0.984 1.080 447,237
  Aboriginal status 1.035 0.988 1.085 447,217
  Marital status 0.999 0.954 1.047 446,677
  Educational attainment *1.114 1.063 1.168 446,442
  Income adequacy quintiles 1.031 0.985 1.081 446,127
  Employment 1.032 0.985 1.081 445,050
All socioeconomic covariates *1.103 1.052 1.157 443,829
All SES + ecological covariates added separately     
% recent immigrants *1.253 1.190 1.320 440,157
  % completed high school *1.349 1.278 1.424 437,545
  % low income 1.045 0.994 1.099 433,397
All SES + all ecological covariates *1.345 1.270 1.424 433,080
All SES + all ecological + behavioural covariates added separately     
  Smoking *1.341 1.267 1.420 431,304
  Alcohol consumption *1.292 1.221 1.368 432,308
  Fruit and vegetable consumption *1.342 1.267 1.421 433,004
  Body Mass Index *1.345 1.270 1.424 432,338
All SES + all ecological + all behavioural covariates *1.261 1.190 1.336 429,524
  1. aNumber of deaths = 26,300
  2. bModels are stratified by age (5 year categories) and sex
  3. *Significant HR (p < 0.05)
  4. SES Socioeconomic