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Table 4 Cox proportional HRs for mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5 in the study cohort (n = 299,500)

From: Risk estimates of mortality attributed to low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter in the Canadian community health survey cohort

   Unadjusted+ Adjusted: SES Adjusted: SES + behavioural cov.§ Adjusted: SES + ecological cov. Adjusted: SES + ecological cov. + behavioural cov.§
    95 % CI   95 % CI   95 % CI   95 % CI   95 % CI
Cause of mortality Deaths HR To From HR To From HR To From HR To From HR To From
Non-accidentala 26,300 1.028 0.981 1.077 *1.103 1.052 1.157 *1.085 1.034 1.139 *1.345 1.270 1.424 *1.261 1.190 1.336
Circulatory diseaseb 8,600 0.940 0.866 1.020 1.014 0.932 1.102 0.997 0.917 1.085 *1.297 1.174 1.434 *1.187 1.073 1.313
  Circulatory-diabetesc 9,500 0.939 0.868 1.015 1.016 0.938 1.100 1.011 0.933 1.096 *1.313 1.194 1.444 *1.210 1.099 1.331
  Ischemic heart d. d 4,700 0.979 0.877 1.093 1.090 0.975 1.220 1.078 0.963 1.207 *1.408 1.232 1.610 *1.290 1.127 1.477
  Cerebrovascular d. e 1,500 1.064 0.879 1.288 1.082 0.890 1.316 1.063 0.872 1.295 *1.360 1.078 1.715 1.241 0.981 1.570
Respiratory diseasef 2,400 1.133 0.970 1.324 *1.269 1.083 1.487 *1.214 1.034 1.425 *1.628 1.347 1.969 *1.522 1.257 1.843
  COPDg 1,400 1.032 0.839 1.268 1.191 0.966 1.469 1.109 0.897 1.370 *1.480 1.150 1.903 *1.398 1.085 1.801
Lung cancerh 2,700 1.007 0.871 1.166 *1.170 1.008 1.357 1.088 0.937 1.263 *1.216 1.017 1.453 1.167 0.975 1.396
  1. +Unadjusted and all adjusted models were stratified by age (5 year categories) and sex
  2. SES covariates: immigrant status, visible minority status, Aboriginal status, marital status, income adequacy quintile, educational attainment, and employment
  3. §Behavioural covariates: smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI
  4. Ecological covariates: (CD-DA and CD) for % recent immigrants, % completed high school, and % low income household
  5. *Significant HR, p < 0.05
  6. aIncludes ICD-10 codes A-R. bIncludes ICD-10 codes I00-I99. cIncludes ICD-10 codes I00-I99 and E10-E14. dIncludes ICD-10 codes I20-I25. eIncludes ICD-10 codes I60-I69. fIncludes ICD-10 codes J00-J99. gIncludes ICD-10 codes J19-J46. hIncludes ICD-10 codes C33-C34