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Table 1 Weighted seroprevalence by participant characteristics among nonsmokers, NHANES 1999–2012

From: Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

Characteristic H. pylori T. gondii Hepatitis B virus
N Positive (%)a P b N Positive (%)a P b N Positive (%)a P b
Total 5994 23.1   18,425 11.0   17,389 4.9  
NHANES cycle years
 1999–2000 5994 23.1 4084 13.5 0.0001 2926 5.0 0.8283
 2001–2002   4669 8.0   2955 4.5  
 2003–2004   4089 9.3   2420 5.7  
 2005–2006    2157 5.3  
 2007–2008    2507 4.3  
 2009–2010   5583 12.8   2466 5.0  
 2011–2012     1958 4.9  
Age (years)
  ≤ 13 1721 7.2 <0.0001 5127 3.5 <0.0001 613 0.4 <0.0001
 14–40 2307 20.2   9252 10.5   4788 2.9  
  ≥ 41 1966 33.4   4046 16.2   11,988 5.9  
Gender
 Male 2785 22.7 0.5279 8529 11.5 0.1633 8171 5.5 0.0185
 Female 3209 23.5   9896 10.5   9218 4.5  
Race
 Non-Hispanic White 1912 14.6 <0.0001 6320 9.0 <0.0001 8365 2.6 <0.0001
 Non-Hispanic Black 1300 37.2   4313 11.7   3124 13.4  
 Mexican American 2586 45.2   6967 17.2   5083 4.3  
 Other 196 31.2   825 12.4   817 27.4  
Family income
  ≥ $20,000 2991 18.3 <0.0001 10,997 9.6 <0.0001 10,661 4.0 <0.0001
  < $20,000 2650 31.5   6725 14.3   6027 7.4  
Country of birth origin
 United States 4675 17.6 <0.0001c 14,417 7.7 <0.0001 12,919 3.2 <0.0001
 Other 1314 53.4   4002 27.3   4459 14.0  
General health condition
 Excellent/very good 3190 17.2 <0.0001 10,634 8.2 <0.0001 7622 3.8 <0.0001
 Good 1855 28.0   5452 13.7   5829 5.6  
 Fair/poor 943 42.0   2330 20.9   3925 7.5  
Source of tap water
 Municipal 5306 22.9 0.9746 16,294 10.9 0.9501 13,218 5.4 <0.0001
 Public/private well 589 23.0   1768 11.0   1962 2.6  
Crowded housingd
  ≤ 1 person/room 4109 20.9 <0.0001 12,739 10.1 <0.0001 12,872 4.8 0.0091
  > 1 person/room 1806 34.2   5490 15.7   2401 6.5  
Injected drug user
 No/unknown 18,377 8.4 0.5850 17,294 4.8 <0.0001
 Yes   48 11.0   95 18.5  
  1. aWeighted percentages
  2. bRao-Scott chi-square test used
  3. cUnweighted Wald chi-square used
  4. dCalculated as total number of individuals living in a household divided by number of rooms in the home (excluding bathroom and kitchen)