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Table 5 Seropositivity associated with blood lead and cadmium levels, for each two-fold increase and across percentiles, among non-smoking NHANES participants, 1999–2012. Children under 13 years of agea

From: Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

Heavy metal H. pylori T. gondii
Positive (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI)b,c Positive (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI)b,d
Per doubling of blood lead 7.3 2.61 (1.85–3.67) e 3.5 1.12 (0.84–1.49)
Blood lead concentration (μg/dL)
 Quartile 1 0.8 Ref 1.8 Ref
 Quartile 2 4.5 5.26 (1.92–14.4) 3.0 1.46 (0.57–3.73)
 Quartile 3 5.8 4.75 (1.61–14.0) 3.0 1.17 (0.46–2.95)
 Quartile 4 15.5 21.2 (8.32–53.8) 5.7 1.82 (0.75–4.43)
p for trend <0.0001 0.1825
Per doubling of blood cadmium 7.3 2.02 (1.29–3.15) 3.5 1.10 (0.74–1.63)
Blood cadmium concentration (μg/L)
 Tertile 1 5.5 Ref 2.1 Ref
 Tertile 2 9.9 2.75 (1.30–5.83) 4.1 1.46 (0.63–3.36)
 Tertile 3 10.5 2.39 (1.35–4.20) 4.2 1.11 (0.48–2.56)
p for trend 0.0005 0.8214
  1. aOnly two children under 13 were positive for Hepatitis B so it was not considered
  2. bMultivariable logistic regression used with survey procedures
  3. cAdjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, country of birth origin, family income, self-reported general health condition, tap water source, and household crowding
  4. dAdjusted for NHANES cycle, age, gender, race/ethnicity, country of birth origin, family income, self-reported general health condition, and household crowding
  5. eBolded font denotes statistically significant (α < 0.05)