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Table 7 Effect of interaction between blood lead and blood cadmium levels on odds of Hepatitis B seropositivity, NHANES 1999–2012

From: Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

Blood lead levels Blood cadmium levels
<Median ≥Median AOR (95 % CI) within Pb strata
N (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI) N (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI)
<Median 4160 (2.2) 1.0 3622 (4.5) 1.51 (1.12–2.04) 1.42 (1.03–1.98)
P P = 0.0310
≥Median 3011 (4.0) 1.23 (0.86–1.76) 6596 (7.9) 1.98 (1.51–2.61) 1.67 (1.23–2.25)
P = 0.2503 P = <0.0001 P = 0.0008
AOR (95 % CI) within Cd strata   1.12 (0.79–1.60)   1.35 (1.06–1.72)  
P = 0.5209 P = 0.0155
  1. Measure of interaction on additive scale: RERI (95 % CI) = 0.24 (−0.28–0.76)
  2. Measure of interaction on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95 % CI) = 1.07 (0.71–1.61); P = 0.7622
  3. AORs are adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, country of birth origin, family income, self-reported general health condition, use of illicit/street injected drugs