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Table 1 Characteristics of Massachusetts mothers, (1) overall, (2) by quartile of second trimester PM2.5 exposure, and (3) in the subset of those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

From: Air pollution exposure and gestational diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in Massachusetts: a cohort study

   Second trimester PM2.5 a  
Characteristic Total
n = 159,373
Q1
n = 39,724
Q2
n = 39,725
Q3
n = 39,725
Q4
n = 39,725
With GDM
n = 5,381
Percent
Age       
  < 20 years 9 8 9 10 11 3
 20–35 years 74 74 74 73 74 70
  ≥ 35 years 17 18 17 17 15 27
Race/ethnicityb       
 White 70 76 71 68 64 64
 Black 7 5 7 8 9 7
 Asian/Pacific Islander 8 7 8 9 9 16
 Hispanic 12 9 12 13 15 10
 Other 2 2 2 3 3 2
Educationc       
 Less than high school 11 9 10 11 13 7
 High school 24 22 24 24 25 24
 Some college 20 21 20 20 20 24
 Bachelor degree 28 30 28 27 26 28
 Postgraduate degree 17 18 17 17 17 16
Public prenatal insuranced 31 28 31 31 35 26
Smoking habitse       
 Never 85 84 85 85 86 86
 Former 9 10 9 9 8 9
 Current low (<10 cigs) 5 5 5 4 4 3
 Current high (>10 cigs) 2 2 2 2 2 2
Gestational diabetes 3 4 3 3 3 100
Mean (SD)
Open space in census tract (%) 12 (11) 13 (11) 12 (11) 11 (11) 10 (11) 11 (11)
Median household income in census tract ($) 51,000 (20,000) 55,000 (19,000) 52,000 (20,000) 51,000 (20,000) 47,000 (19,000) 50,000 (19,000)
Median value of owner occupied housing in census tract ($) 198,000 (120,000) 195,000 (101,000) 193,000 (106,000) 198,000 (116,000) 205,000 (150,000) 184,000 (99,000)
  1. aSecond trimester PM2.5 exposure quartiles mean (SD): Q1 8.2 (0.8), Q2 9.8 (0.4), Q3 11.0 (0.3), Q4 12.6 (0.8). b84 missing from total cohort; c141 missing from total cohort; d42 missing from total cohort; e154 missing from total cohort