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Table 3 Unadjusted and covariate-adjusteda odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for gestational diabetes mellitus versus normal glucose tolerance

From: Air pollution exposure and gestational diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in Massachusetts: a cohort study

Exposure Unadjustedb Covariate-adjustedc
First trimester PM2.5   
 Q1 (3.1–9.3 μg/m3) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Q2 (9.3–10.4 μg/m3) 0.95 (0.88, 1.03) 1.00 (0.93, 1.09)
 Q3 (10.4–11.5 μg/m3) 0.91 (0.84, 0.98) 0.97 (0.89, 1.05)
 Q4 (11.5–17.1 μg/m3) 0.92 (0.85, 1.00) 1.00 (0.92, 1.09)
 10–90 percentile range (4.3 μg/m3) 0.92 (0.86, 0.99) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09)
Second trimester PM2.5   
 Q1 (1.3–9.2 μg/m3) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Q2 (9.2–10.4 μg/m3) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13)
 Q3 (10.4–11.6 μg/m3) 0.90 (0.83, 0.97) 0.95 (0.88, 1.03)
 Q4 (11.6–19.3 μg/m3) 0.98 (0.9, 1.05) 0.99 (0.91, 1.08)
 10–90 percentile range (4.5 μg/m3) 0.96 (0.89, 1.03) 0.97 (0.90, 1.05)
Traffic densityd   
 Q1 (0–280) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Q2 (280–744) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) 1.04 (0.96, 1.12)
 Q3 (744–1,636) 0.99 (0.91, 1.07) 1.01 (0.93, 1.10)
 Q4 (1,636–37,306) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09) 1.03 (0.95, 1.12)
 10–90 percentile range (2,799) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04)
  1. aAdjusted for maternal characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, prenatal insurance, smoking habits), census tract characteristics (median household income, percent open space, and median value of owner occupied housing), and timing of birth (season and date)
  2. bSample sizes for unadjusted analyses were 158,894 for associations of first trimester PM2.5, 158,899 for second trimester PM2.5, and 159, 373 for traffic density
  3. cSample sizes for covariate-adjusted analyses were 158,613 for associations of first trimester PM2.5, 158,618 for second trimester PM2.5, and 159,025 for traffic density
  4. dVehicles/day x km of road within 100 m of residential address