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Table 4 Covariate-adjusteda odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for gestational diabetes mellitus versus normal glucose tolerance, by maternal age. Estimates with 95 % confidence intervals that do not cross the null are bolded

From: Air pollution exposure and gestational diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in Massachusetts: a cohort study

Exposure <20 yearsb 20- < 35 yearsc ≥35 yearsd
First trimester PM2.5    
 Q1 (3.1–9.3 μg/m3) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Q2 (9.3–10.4 μg/m3) 0.84 (0.55, 1.29) 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 1.08 (0.93, 1.26)
 Q3 (10.4–11.5 μg/m3) 0.81 (0.52, 1.26) 0.96 (0.87, 1.06) 0.99 (0.85, 1.17)
 Q4 (11.5–17.1 μg/m3) 0.72 (0.46, 1.13) 0.94 (0.85, 1.04) 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)
 10–90%ile range (4.3 μg/m3) 0.78 (0.51, 1.88) 0.95 (0.87, 1.04) 1.16 (1.00, 1.35)
Second trimester PM2.5    
 Q1 (1.3–9.2 μg/m3) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Q2 (9.2–10.4 μg/m3) 2.12 (1.27, 3.53) 1.03 (0.94, 1.13) 1.00 (0.86, 1.16)
 Q3 (10.4–11.6 μg/m3) 2.00 (1.19, 3.36) 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 0.89 (0.76, 1.04)
 Q4 (11.6–19.3 μg/m3) 1.97 (1.17, 3.32) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 0.88 (0.75, 1.04)
 10–90%ile range (4.5 μg/m3) 1.76 (1.16, 2.69) 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) 0.88 (0.76, 1.03)
Traffic densitye    
 Q1 (0–280) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Q2 (280–744) 1.34 (0.83, 2.17) 1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 1.07 (0.92, 1.24)
 Q3 (744–1,636) 1.12 (0.68, 1.84) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 1.02 (0.87, 1.19)
 Q4 (1,636–37,306) 0.92 (0.55, 1.56) 1.04 (0.95, 1.15) 1.01 (0.86, 1.19)
 10–90%ile range (2,799) 0.80 (0.58, 1.11) 1.01 (0.97, 1.06) 0.99 (0.92, 1.06)
  1. aAdjusted for maternal characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, prenatal insurance, smoking habits), census tract characteristics (median household income, percent open space, and median value of owner occupied housing), and timing of birth (season and date)
  2. bSample sizes for analyses of women < 20 years of age were 14,928 for associations of first trimester PM2.5, 14,929 for second trimester PM2.5, and 14,974 for traffic density
  3. cSample sizes for analyses of women 20- < 35 years of age were 117,029 for associations of first trimester PM2.5, 117,031 for second trimester PM2.5, and 117,333 for traffic density
  4. dSample sizes for analyses of women > 35 years of age were 26,656 for associations of first trimester PM2.5, 26,658 for second trimester PM2.5, and 26,718 for traffic density
  5. eVehicles/day x km of road within 100 m of residential address