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Table 2 Mixed model analyses of the direct effects between air lead and assault rates for all six suburbs with time lags between 15 and 24 years

From: The relationship between atmospheric lead emissions and aggressive crime: an ecological study

Time Lag (number of cases with complete information) F df p Fixed effects (SE) ω2 (%)
15 years (n = 87) .857 86.940 .357 30.50 (32.951) 0.46
16 years (n = 90) .045 89.434 .832 6.20 (29.191) −0.09
17 years (n = 93) 6.534 92.673 .012 72.23 (28.256) 5.54
18 years (n = 96) 14.021 95.874 .000 104.87 (28.007) 11.66
19 years (n = 97) 29.922 96.784 .000 145.61 (26.619) 22.88
20 years (n = 98) 34.989 97.895 .000 159.66 (26.993) 25.60
21 years (n = 98) 61.285 97.761 .000 196.05 (25.044) 38.38
22 years (n = 98) 41.507 97.864 .000 180.09 (27.954) 28.70
23 years (n = 94) 7.064 93.865 .009 85.75 (32.264) 5.13
24 years (n = 89) 9.613 88.995 .003 99.22 (32.003) 7.72
  1. F F-test, df degrees of freedom, p p-value, Fixed effects the estimated change in assaults per 100,000 population for a 1 μg/m3 increase in lead in air, SE standard error, ω 2 an estimate of the amount of variance accounted for by lead in air