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Table 4 Associations between As, Mn, and Pb exposures and Cognitive BSID-III at 20–40 months

From: Neurodevelopmental outcomes among 2- to 3-year-old children in Bangladesh with elevated blood lead and exposure to arsenic and manganese in drinking water

  Cognitive
Sirajdikhan n = 239 Pabna n = 286
β (SE) p-value β (SE) p-value
ln Water As 0.06 (0.08) 0.50 0.08 (0.05) 0.12
ln Water Mn 0.02 (0.02) 0.34 −0.05 (0.07) 0.42
ln Blood Pb −0.16 (0.09) 0.07 0.45 (0.18) 0.01
Ln Water As*Ln Blood Pb −0.03 (0.04) 0.47 −0.15 (0.05) 0.003
  1. All models are adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, child’s gender, exposure to second-hand smoke, HOME score, maternal Raven score, and child hematocrit levels. BSID-scores are as age-adjusted z-scores
  2. Ln natural log, SE standard error, As arsenic, Mn manganese, Pb lead