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Table 1 Urinary levels of BPA analytes in second trimester pregnant women, Northern and Central California, 2009–2011 (n = 112)

From: Direct measurement of Bisphenol A (BPA), BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate in a diverse and low-income population of pregnant women reveals high exposure, with potential implications for previous exposure estimates: a cross-sectional study

    Percentile  
  n (%) >LODa GM (GSD) 5th 25th 50th 75th 95th Range
Creatinine-adjusted (μg/g)
Total BPAb 112 (100) 6.16 (1.77) 0.61 1.69 3.97 13.87 196.65 0.37 - 1,347.50
 BPA 98 (88) 0.21 (1.39) <LOD 0.08 0.25 0.55 1.61 <LOD - 16.96
 BPA glucuronide 111 (99) 6.77 (1.90) 0.60 2.16 4.67 15.31 249.76 <LOD - 2,019.33
 BPA in glucuronide formc 111 (99) 3.82 (1.90) 0.34 1.22 2.64 8.64 140.99 <LOD - 1,139.91
 BPA sulfate 84 (75) 0.62 (2.73) <LOD 0.05 0.42 3.54 80.35 <LOD - 279.77
 BPA in sulfate formc 84 (75) 0.46 (2.73) <LOD 0.04 0.31 2.62 59.49 <LOD - 207.14
Unadjusted (ng/mL)
Total BPAb 112 (100) 7.69 (1.74) 0.88 2.28 4.61 19.49 250.06 0.35 - 539.63
 BPA 98 (88) 0.26 (1.20) <LOD 0.10 0.29 0.66 1.51 <LOD - 4.41
 BPA glucuronide 111 (99) 8.45 (1.93) 0.57 2.49 6.74 21.08 359.41 <LOD - 683.42
 BPA in glucuronide formc 111 (99) 4.77 (1.93) 0.32 1.41 3.80 11.90 202.89 <LOD - 385.79
 BPA sulfate 84 (75) 0.77 (2.71) 0.04 0.04 0.49 5.97 109.24 0.04 - 271.16
 BPA in sulfate formc 84 (75) 0.57 (2.71) 0.03 0.03 0.37 4.42 80.88 0.03 - 200.77
  1. GM geometric mean, GSD geometric standard deviation, LOD limit of detection
  2. aLOD = 0.05 ng/mL for BPA and BPA glucuronide and LOD = 0.025 ng/mL for BPA sulfate
  3. bTotal BPA = BPA + BPA in glucuronide form + BPA in sulfate form
  4. cBPA in glucuronide form = BPA glucuronide*0.5614. BPA in sulfate form = BPA sulfate*0.7404. The factors 0.5614 and 0.7404 are the ratios of the molecular weight of BPA to the molecular weights of BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate, respectively