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Table 2 Characteristics and creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentrations of second trimester pregnant women from Northern and Central California, 2009–2011 (n=112)

From: Direct measurement of Bisphenol A (BPA), BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate in a diverse and low-income population of pregnant women reveals high exposure, with potential implications for previous exposure estimates: a cross-sectional study

  n (%) BPA in Conjugated Forma (μg/g) GM (95 % CI) BPA (μg/g) GM (95 % CI)
Ethnicity
 Latina 26 (23) 6.52 (2.94, 14.50) 0.17 (0.10, 0.30)
 Black 41 (37) 2.71 (1.68, 4.38) 0.23 (0.14, 0.37)
 White 27 (24) 8.60 (3.39, 21.82) 0.27 (0.16, 0.46)
 Asian/PI/Unknown 18 (16) 4.97 (1.72, 14.33) 0.15 (0.08, 0.28)
Smoking Statusb
 Non-smoker 64 (60) 5.48 (3.37, 8.90) 0.20 (0.14, 0.28)
 Current smoker 43 (40) 4.02 (2.10, 7.69) 0.21 (0.14, 0.30)
Educationb
 11th Grade and below 19 (18) 2.26 (0.96, 5.36)** 0.11 (0.06, 0.22)*
 12th Grade/GED 51 (47) 3.74 (2.20, 6.37) 0.23 (0.15, 0.35)
 College or above 38 (35) 10.45 (5.46, 20.00) 0.25 (0.17, 0.38)
Food-stamp Status
 No 52 (46) 6.46 (3.82, 10.93) 0.23 (0.15, 0.34)
 Yes 60 (54) 3.77 (2.22, 6.39) 0.20 (0.14, 0.28)
Parityb
 Nulliparous 39 (35) 8.74 (4.39, 17.42)** 0.23 (0.15, 0.35)
 Parity ≥1 73 (65) 3.53 (2.30, 5.42) 0.20 (0.14, 0.28)
Combined Annual Household Income ($)
  < 20,000 46 (41) 4.03 (2.35, 6.89) 0.20 (0.13, 0.30)
 20,000 – 40,000 11 (10) 3.77 (0.87, 16.34) 0.21 (0.09, 0.51)
  > 40,000 13 (12) 16.35 (4.02, 66.45) 0.18 (0.07, 0.43)
 Refused/Don’t know 42 (37) 4.34 (2.37, 7.94) 0.23 (0.15, 0.36)
Medi-Cal Insuranceb
 No 20 (18) 5.01 (2.04, 12.28) 0.15 (0.08, 0.29)
 Yes 90 (82) 4.69 (3.07, 7.16) 0.23 (0.17, 0.31)
  Median (Range) Spearman ρ Spearman ρ
Age 25.4 (18.0 - 45.0) 0.00 −0.05
BMI 28.6 (17.2 - 65.8) −0.02 −0.27***
Gestational Age, weeks 20.0 (13.3 - 24.0) 0.01 0.01
Urine Collection time 12:50 pm (10:00 AM - 4:50 PM) 0.04 −0.12
  1. aBPA in Conjugated form = BPA in glucuronide form + BPA in sulfate form. BPA in glucuronide form = BPA glucuronide*0.5614. BPA in sulfate form = BPA sulfate*0.7404. The factors 0.5614 and 0.7404 are the ratios of the molecular weight of BPA to the molecular weights of BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate, respectively
  2. bData missing on: smoking status (n = 5), education (n = 4), parity (n = 3), and Medi-Cal insurance status (n = 2)
  3. * = p <0.1 and ** = p <0.05 for Kruskal-Wallis test
  4. *** = p <0.05 for Spearman Correlation test