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Table 3 Crude and adjusted BPA analyte levels, by sources of exposure, in second trimester pregnant women from Northern and Central California, 2009–2011 (n=112)

From: Direct measurement of Bisphenol A (BPA), BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate in a diverse and low-income population of pregnant women reveals high exposure, with potential implications for previous exposure estimates: a cross-sectional study

   BPA in Conjugated Forma (μg/g creatinine) BPA (μg/g creatinine)
  n (%) GM (95 % CI) MGM (95 % CI) GM (95 % CI) MGM (95 % CI)
Job involves handling paper receipts
 Nod 89 (79) 4.11 (2.70, 6.25) 4.21 (2.83, 6.26) 0.22 (0.16, 0.29) 0.21 (0.16, 0.27)
 Yes 23 (21) 9.13 (4.10, 20.37)** 8.98 (4.07, 19.83)*** 0.19 (0.11, 0.32) 0.18 (0.11, 0.32)
Touched or held paper receiptsb
 Not in past 2 days 18 (16) 2.85 (1.03, 7.89) 3.78 (1.53, 9.35) 0.24 (0.11, 0.49) 0.22 (0.12, 0.41)
 Yesterday 37 (33) 3.57 (2.00, 6.35) 3.40 (1.84, 6.27)*** 0.16 (0.10, 0.27) 0.19 (0.12, 0.29)
 Todayd 57 (51) 6.98 (4.02, 12.09) 6.87 (4.16, 11.35) 0.24 (0.17, 0.33) 0.21 (0.15, 0.30)
Drank canned drinks
 Not in past 2 daysd 57 (51) 6.32 (3.83, 10.41) 6.24 (3.81, 10.24) 0.21 (0.14, 0.31) 0.20 (0.14, 0.28)
 Yesterday 44 (39) 3.65 (1.92, 6.95) 3.44 (1.94, 6.10) 0.22 (0.15, 0.34) 0.22 (0.15, 0.32)
 Today 11 (10) 3.77 (1.05, 13.55) 5.73 (1.77, 18.59) 0.16 (0.06, 0.45) 0.18 (0.08, 0.40)
Drank cartoned drinks
 Not in past 2 daysd 79 (71) 5.75 (3.58, 9.22) 5.81 (3.80, 8.86) 0.22 (0.17, 0.30) 0.23 (0.17, 0.30)
 Yesterday 22 (20) 3.72 (1.78, 7.78) 3.73 (1.61, 8.64) 0.23 (0.12, 0.44) 0.16 (0.09, 0.30)
 Today 11 (10) 2.38 (0.90, 6.33) 2.32 (0.68, 7.95) 0.11 (0.03, 0.32) 0.13 (0.06, 0.28)
Drank from paper cup
 Not in past 2 daysd 55 (49) 5.55 (3.19, 9.66) 5.53 (3.35, 9.14) 0.22 (0.16, 0.32) 0.25 (0.18, 0.35)
 Yesterday 28 (25) 3.18 (1.61, 6.28) 3.23 (1.53, 6.79) 0.15 (0.09, 0.28) 0.14 (0.08, 0.23)***
 Today 29 (26) 5.61 (2.56, 12.29) 5.80 (2.82, 11.93) 0.24 (0.14, 0.42) 0.20 (0.12, 0.32)
Ate canned foodsc
 Not in past 2 daysd 75 (67) 5.60 (3.52, 8.92) 5.58 (3.61, 8.62) 0.18 (0.13, 0.24) 0.18 (0.14, 0.25)
 Yesterday or today 37 (33) 3.60 (1.91, 6.76) 3.78 (2.01, 7.11) 0.30 (0.19, 0.46) 0.25 (0.16, 0.39)
Ate food served or packaged in paper or cardboard
 Not in past 2 daysd 44 (39) 5.77 (2.99, 11.15) 5.87 (3.30, 10.45) 0.25 (0.17, 0.37) 0.27 (0.18, 0.40)
 Yesterday 38 (34) 3.45 (1.94, 6.14) 3.57 (1.92, 6.63) 0.16 (0.10, 0.25) 0.15 (0.10, 0.23)****
 Today 30 (27) 5.75 (2.74, 12.04) 5.62 (2.85, 11.09) 0.23 (0.13, 0.41) 0.19 (0.12, 0.31)
Purchases >1/2 of all mealsb
 Nod 69 (64) 4.37 (2.66, 7.18) 4.42 (2.81, 6.95) 0.26 (0.18, 0.36) 0.24 (0.18, 0.33)
 Yes 38 (36) 5.37 (2.87, 10.04) 5.55 (2.94, 10.47) 0.15 (0.09, 0.23)* 0.15 (0.10, 0.23)***
Consumes wineb
 Nod 68 (62) 5.90 (3.72, 9.37) 6.39 (4.04, 10.12) 0.20 (0.14, 0.27) 0.20 (0.14, 0.27)
 Yes 42 (38) 3.20 (1.71, 5.99)** 2.95 (1.65, 5.30)**** 0.24 (0.15, 0.39) 0.22 (0.15, 0.33)
Consumes beer
 Nod 75 (67) 4.37 (2.69, 7.11) 4.84 (3.10, 7.55) 0.21 (0.15, 0.29) 0.21 (0.16, 0.29)
 Yes 37 (33) 5.95 (3.39, 10.45) 5.06 (2.72, 9.42) 0.21 (0.14, 0.33) 0.19 (0.12, 0.28)
Eats food stored in clear, shatterproof plastic containersb
 No 38 (35) 4.93 (2.67, 9.10) 5.45 (2.98, 9.97) 0.26 (0.15, 0.45) 0.24 (0.16, 0.37)
 Yesd 70 (65) 4.68 (2.90, 7.56) 4.55 (2.91, 7.13) 0.19 (0.14, 0.25) 0.18 (0.14, 0.25)
Uses food processorb
 Nod 92 (84) 4.43 (2.94, 6.67) 4.23 (2.89, 6.20) 0.23 (0.17, 0.31) 0.21 (0.16, 0.28)
 Yes 17 (16) 8.44 (3.19, 22.33) 12.81 (5.03, 32.60)**** 0.14 (0.08, 0.26) 0.18 (0.09, 0.34)
Uses blender with plastic pitcherb
 Nod 82 (76) 5.25 (3.35, 8.21) 5.35 (3.53, 8.10) 0.22 (0.16, 0.30) 0.21 (0.16, 0.28)
 Yes 26 (24) 3.93 (1.91, 8.08) 4.05 (1.95, 8.41) 0.19 (0.11, 0.34) 0.20 (0.12, 0.32)
Uses kitchen appliance with plastic bowl/pitcherb
 Nod 58 (54) 5.58 (3.31, 9.41) 5.63 (3.47, 9.13) 0.23 (0.16, 0.33) 0.20 (0.15, 0.29)
 Yes 49 (46) 3.92 (2.24, 6.84) 4.02 (2.35, 6.88) 0.19 (0.13, 0.29) 0.20 (0.14, 0.29)
Knows or heard about BPAb
 Nod 65 (60) 3.94 (2.54, 6.10) 4.32 (2.69, 6.93) 0.20 (0.14, 0.28) 0.19 (0.14, 0.27)
 Yes 44 (40) 6.55 (3.33, 12.89) 5.95 (3.37, 10.50) 0.23 (0.15, 0.34) 0.21 (0.14, 0.31)
Takes action to avoid BPA
 Noned 81 (72) 5.16 (3.28, 8.12) 5.31 (3.48, 8.10) 0.20 (0.15, 0.28) 0.20 (0.15, 0.27)
 Avoids BPA or purchases 14 (12)     
 BPA-free labeled products   2.16 (0.85, 5.48) 2.48 (0.90, 6.85) 0.30 (0.15, 0.62) 0.25 (0.12, 0.51)
 Avoids BPA and purchases 17 (15)     
 BPA-free labeled products   6.93 (2.67, 17.99) 6.09 (2.46, 15.08) 0.18 (0.08, 0.40) 0.18 (0.10, 0.34)
  1. GM geometric mean, MGM marginal geometric mean
  2. aBPA in conjugated form = BPA in glucuronide form + BPA in sulfate form. BPA in glucuronide form = BPA glucuronide*0.5614. BPA in sulfate form = BPA sulfate*0.7404. The factors 0.5614 and 0.7404 are the ratios of the molecular weight of BPA to the molecular weights of BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate, respectively
  3. bData missing on: touch receipts (n = 5), purchased meals (n = 5), consume wine (n = 2), store food in plastic food container (n = 4), food processor (n = 3), blender with plastic pitcher (n = 4), kitchen appliance with plastic bowl/pitcher (n = 5), and knowledge of BPA (n = 3)
  4. c4 participants who reported eating canned foods were grouped with “Ate yesterday” category
  5. d = baseline group
  6. * p <0.1 and ** = p <0.05 for Kruskal-Wallis test
  7. ***=p <0.1 and **** = p <0.05 for multivariable linear regression, controlling for maternal education and race/ethnicity (for BPA in conjugated form outcome) and education and BMI (for BPA outcome)