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Table 3 Prevalence odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for metabolic syndromes according to urinary phthalate metabolites in men and women

From: The association between phthalates and metabolic syndrome: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

  Overall population   Men   Women  
  (n = 2719) (n = 1388) (n = 1331)
  Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2c Model 1a Model 2c
MEP       
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.07 (0.82, 1.40) 1.16 (0.88, 1.54) 0.92 (0.63, 1.34) 0.98 (0.66, 1.45) 1.21 (0.84, 1.75) 1.46 (0.97, 2.19)
 Q3 0.94 (0.69, 1.27) 0.98 (0.71, 1.37) 0.97 (0.62, 1.53) 0.97 (0.58, 1.61) 0.86 (0.59, 1.27) 1.02 (0.66, 1.56)
 Q4 1.20 (0.91, 1.59) 1.18 (0.88, 1.59) 1.33 (0.90, 1.96) 1.35 (0.87, 2.11) 1.04 (0.71, 1.51) 1.11 (0.72, 1.72)
MBzP
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.33 (1.00, 1.75) 1.40 (1.04, 1.89) 1.25 (0.83, 1.87) 1.19 (0.75, 1.87) 1.34 (0.96, 1.88) 1.55 (1.07, 2.26)
 Q3 1.27 (0.92, 1.78) 1.37 (0.96, 1.96) 1.04 (0.68, 1.59) 1.01 (0.63, 1.63) 1.49 (0.95, 2.35) 1.71 (1.05, 2.80)
 Q4 1.27 (0.86, 1.86) 1.44 (0.98, 2.12) 1.03 (0.62, 1.70) 1.08 (0.65, 1.79) 1.46 (0.90, 2.36) 1.69 (0.97, 2.93)
MnBP
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.23 (0.92, 1.66) 1.21 (0.90, 1.63) 1.10 (0.73, 1.64) 1.06 (0.71, 1.58) 1.35 (0.95, 1.91) 1.31 (0.90, 1.89)
 Q3 0.97 (0.71, 1.33) 0.94 (0.67, 1.33) 0.66 (0.41, 1.07) 0.57 (0.34, 0.96) 1.37 (0.99, 1.90) 1.45 (0.98, 2.16)
 Q4 1.23 (0.88, 1.73) 1.22 (0.85, 1.75) 1.37 (0.87, 2.17) 1.43 (0.85, 2.40) 1.09 (0.69, 1.74) 1.03 (0.60, 1.77)
MCPP
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.09 (0.82, 1.45) 1.05 (0.77, 1.44) 1.09 (0.74, 1.61) 0.96 (0.62, 1.49) 1.04 (0.71, 1.52) 1.05 (0.71, 1.57)
 Q3 1.02 (0.72, 1.43) 0.94 (0.65, 1.34) 0.91 (0.60, 1.38) 0.75 (0.48, 1.18) 1.07 (0.68, 1.68) 0.97 (0.57, 1.66)
 Q4 1.25 (0.91, 1.72) 1.12 (0.80, 1.56) 1.30 (0.85, 2.01) 0.99 (0.63, 1.58) 1.11 (0.72, 1.70) 1.08 (0.68, 1.71)
MiBP
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.04 (0.78, 1.38) 1.07 (0.78, 1.47) 0.91 (0.64, 1.30) 0.94 (0.63, 1.38) 1.14 (0.73, 1.78) 1.13 (0.71, 1.81)
 Q3 0.88 (0.64, 1.20) 0.88 (0.61, 1.27) 0.72 (0.46, 1.12) 0.72 (0.43, 1.19) 1.03 (0.66, 1.61) 1.04 (0.64, 1.70)
 Q4 1.14 (0.86, 1.52) 1.28 (0.91, 1.80) 0.98 (0.69, 1.40) 1.05 (0.66, 1.65) 1.25 (0.74, 2.09) 1.40 (0.77, 2.55)
∑DEHP
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.62 (1.25, 2.11) 1.64 (1.24, 2.17) 1.69 (1.23, 2.34) 1.60 (1.11, 2.31) 1.52 (1.07, 2.17) 1.58 (1.09, 2.29)
 Q3 1.55 (1.16, 2.09) 1.64 (1.22, 2.22) 1.71 (1.17, 2.51) 1.69 (1.16, 2.46) 1.38 (0.86, 2.22) 1.43 (0.89, 2.29)
 Q4 1.59 (1.12, 2.25) 1.94 (1.35, 2.80) 1.87 (1.19, 2.94) 2.20 (1.32, 3.68) 1.27 (0.78, 2.06) 1.50 (0.89, 2.52)
  1. aAdjusted for urinary creatinine
  2. bAdjusted for urinary creatinine, age, sex, race/ethnicity, total caloric intake, education, physical activity, smoking, and poverty
  3. cAdjusted for the same variables in b except sex