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Table 4 Prevalence odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for individual components of metabolic syndrome according to urinary phthalate metabolite levels

From: The association between phthalates and metabolic syndrome: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

  Individual metabolic abnormalities of metabolic syndrome
Central obesity Hypertriglyceridemia Low HDL cholesterol High blood pressure Hyperglycemia
  Overall population     
# with condition /total 1522/2719 849/2719 816/2719 871/2719 1289/2719
MBzPa
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.23 (0.93, 1.62) 1.20 (0.95, 1.51) 1.13 (0.81, 1.57) 0.87 (0.62, 1.21) 1.03 (0.75, 1.41)
 Q3 1.34 (0.98, 1.85) 1.12 (0.84, 1.49) 1.12 (0.77, 1.63) 1.07 (0.68, 1.67) 1.36 (0.98, 1.88)
 Q4 1.84 (1.31, 2.58) 1.50 (1.10, 2.05) 1.27 (0.86, 1.89) 1.18 (0.79, 1.75) 1.20 (0.80, 1.79)
∑DEHPa
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.40 (1.02, 1.92) 1.34 (1.01, 1.79) 1.35 (1.01, 1.80) 1.34 (0.96, 1.88) 1.20 (0.88, 1.64)
 Q3 1.31 (0.95, 1.81) 1.33 (0.96, 1.82) 0.99 (0.74, 1.31) 1.28 (0.90, 1.81) 1.60 (1.13, 2.26)
 Q4 1.66 (1.16, 2.36) 1.55 (1.12, 2.14) 1.05 (0.74, 1.49) 1.56 (1.14, 2.12) 1.66 (1.13, 2.44)
  Men
# with condition/total men 639/1388 465/1388 357/1388 437/1388 758/1388
MBzPb
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.20 (0.75, 1.90) 1.21 (0.89, 1.66) 1.35 (0.88, 2.08) 0.84 (0.56, 1.27) 0.68 (0.40, 1.18)
 Q3 1.11 (0.67, 1.83) 1.09 (0.75, 1.57) 1.14 (0.64, 2.04) 0.78 (0.47, 1.31) 0.96 (0.54, 1.38)
 Q4 1.71 (1.06, 2.77) 1.28 (0.84, 1.95) 1.02 (0.62, 1.70) 0.89 (0.54, 1.48) 0.86 (0.48, 1.53)
∑DEHPb
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.42 (0.97, 2.07) 1.13 (0.75, 1.71) 1.17 (0.69, 1.98) 1.59 (1.05, 2.40) 1.15 (0.76, 1.74)
 Q3 1.24 (0.79, 1.93) 1.34 (0.89, 2.02) 1.02 (0.62, 1.68) 1.38 (0.88, 2.16) 1.57 (0.95, 2.58)
 Q4 1.68 (1.02, 2.79) 1.55 (0.97, 2.49) 0.98 (0.53, 1.80) 1.85 (1.12, 3.05) 1.67 (0.96, 2.93)
  Women
# with condition /total women 883/1331 384/1331 459/1331 434/1331 531/1331
MBzPb
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.16 (0.79, 1.69) 1.17 (0.79, 1.73) 0.93 (0.60, 1.42) 0.82 (0.50, 1.36) 1.52 (1.05, 2.18)
 Q3 1.46 (0.96, 2.22) 1.16 (0.71, 1.87) 1.06 (0.67, 1.67) 1.37 (0.74, 2.56) 2.06 (1.31, 3.22)
 Q4 1.71 (1.07, 2.73) 1.75 (0.98, 3.13) 1.47 (0.84, 2.56) 1.40 (0.80, 2.47) 1.57 (0.90, 2.71)
∑DEHPb
 Q1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Q2 1.24 (0.79, 1.93) 1.63 (1.16, 2.28) 1.38 (0.96, 1.99) 1.12 (0.67, 1.88) 1.18 (0.79, 1.77)
 Q3 1.23 (0.80, 1.90) 1.23 (0.81, 1.89) 0.86 (0.57, 1.31) 1.19 (0.69, 2.07) 1.53 (0.94, 2.49)
 Q4 1.38 (0.90, 2.12) 1.45 (0.88, 2.41) 1.04 (0.66, 1.63) 1.24 (0.82, 1.88) 1.56 (0.93, 2.59)
  1. aAdjusted for urinary creatinine, age, sex, race/ethnicity, total caloric intake, education, physical activity, smoking, and poverty
  2. bAdjusted for covariates in a except sex