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Table 4 Multi-area LUR models for PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, PMcoarse, PNC and LDSA

From: Development of land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide, ultrafine particles, lung deposited surface area, and four other markers of particulate matter pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA regions

Pollutant N Model Model Measures of spatial autocorrelation LOOCV
Adj R2 R2 RMSE P-value of association of residuals with area Moran’s I (p-value) R2 RMSE
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 74 PM2.5 = −13.2 + PM25_2010 * 1.81 + MAJROADLENGTH_25 * 0.0478 + URBGREEN_5000 * -0.000000521 + TRAFMAJOR * 0.0000515 0.55 0.57 2.0 0.4530 −0.0558 (0.7222) 0.50 2.2
PM2.5 absorbance (10−5 m−1) 74 PM2.5abs = 4.75 + Area_GE * 0.559 + Area_LU * 0.626 + Area_WA * 0.369 + MAJROADLENGTH_25 * 0.00564 + LOG_ALT * -0.715 + HEAVYTRAFLOAD_150 * 0.00000108 0.79 0.81 0.18 1.0000 0.1500 (0.1684) 0.77 0.19
PM10 (μg/m3) 74 PM10 = −19.2 + PM10_2010 * 2.02 + MAJROADLENGTH_25 * 0.0707 + URBGREEN_5000 * -0.00000092 0.62 0.63 2.5 0.1012 0.123 (0.2494) 0.59 2.6
PMcoarse (μg/m3) 74 PMcoarse = −0.69 + PM10_2010 * 0.337 + TRAFMAJORLOAD_75 * 0.000000413 + NATURAL_1000 * -0.00000182 + 0.43 0.45 1.5 0.0551 0.125 (0.242) 0.38 1.6
PNC (particles/cm3) 67 PNC = 7805 + Area_GE * 4270 + Area_LU * 5895 + Area_WA * ‘2388 + TRAFLOAD_250 * 0.000110 + ROADLENGTH_100 * 4.26 + MAJROADLENGTH_50 * 19.9 + UGNL_1000 * -0.00273 0.85 0.87 1991 1.0000 −0.0663 (0.7059) 0.82 2255
LDSA (μm2/cm3) 67 LDSA = 29.9 + Area_GE * 9.17 + Area_LU * 17.3 + Area_WA * 0.502 + MAJROADLENGTH_250 * 0.00317 + ROADLENGTH_100 * 0.0094 + TRAFNEAR * 0.000199 + ALT * -0.0257 0.89 0.91 3.8 1.0000 −0.0434 (0.8349) 0.87 4.2