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Table 6 Results of independent external validation using air pollution data from the routine monitoring sites

From: Development of land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide, ultrafine particles, lung deposited surface area, and four other markers of particulate matter pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA regions

Pollutant N Mean overprediction (standard deviation) R 2
NO2 (μg/m3)a 102 −2.2 (5.8) 0.75
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 10 0.090 (1.5) 0.83
PM2.5 absorbance (10−5 m−1)b,c 5 −0.13 (0.28) 0.52
PM10 (μg/m3) 82 0.77 (4.9) 0.71
PMcoarse (μg/m3) 10 1.2 (1.7) 0.65
PNC (particles/cm3)c 4 −5058 (17678) 0.00
  1. aNO2 LUR models were applied to 102 sites in total: the area-specific NO2 models were applied to 26 routine monitoring sites within 10 km of the SAPALDIA measurement areas, alpine NO2 models were applied to 4 routine monitoring sites outside of SAPALDIA measurement areas, with altitudes above 1000 m, and non-alpine NO2 models were applied to 72 routine monitoring sites outside of the SAPALDIA measurement areas, with altitudes below 1000 m (Fig. 1); bThe routine monitoring sites measured elemental carbon or soot, but this is known to correlate highly with PM2.5 absorbance; c The PM2.5 absorbance and PNC models included area indicators, and were only applied to the sites within 20 km of the SAPALDIA measurement areas