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Table 2 Associations Between Prenatal Exposures and TTS Subscales [β (p-value)] by Linear Regression Modeling

From: Toddler temperament and prenatal exposure to lead and maternal depression

  Activity Rhythmicity Approach Adaptability Intensity Mood Persistence Distractibility Threshold
1. SES −0.014 (0.54) −0.081 (0.005)* −0.027 (0.47) −0.017 (0.56) −0.026 (0.28) −0.040 (0.12) 0.013 (0.55) 0.034 (0.19) 0.067 (0.030)*
2. EPDS 0.021 (0.0003)* 0.029 (<0.0001)* 0.020 (0.037)* 0.031 (<0.0001)* 0.005 (0.46) 0.032 (<0.0001)* 0.018 (0.001)* 0.008 (0.24) −0.020 (0.015)*
3. Blood lead −0.009 (0.38) 0.016 (0.21) −0.012 (0.46) 0.018 (0.17) −0.005 (0.63) 0.005 (0.67) 0.001 (0.91) −0.002 (0.84) −0.009 (0.53)
4. Blood lead x EPDS <0.001 (0.98) −0.005 (0.11) −0.004 (0.37) −0.003 (0.46) 0.006 (0.05)* 0.001 (0.74) 0.004 (0.11) 0.004 (0.20) 0.005 (0.14)
5. Tibia lead −0.002 (0.56) 0.004 (0.32) −0.001 (0.79) −0.0008 (0.86) −0.002 (0.67) 0.0008 (0.84) −0.003 (0.42) −0.006 (0.11) −0.011 (0.017)*
6. Tibia lead x EPDS <0.0001 (0.99) −0.003 (0.01)* −0.002 (0.22) −0.001 (0.31) −0.0003 (0.73) −0.0008 (0.37) 0.0007 (0.38) −0.0009 (0.37) −0.0001 (0.93)
7. Mercury 0.12 (0.49) 0.28 (0.21) −0.25 (0.40) 0.16 (0.50) 0.35 (0.07) 0.10 (0.61) −0.13 (0.45) 0.30 (0.16) 0.090 (0.71)
8. Mercury x EPDS 0.088 (0.04)* 0.053 (0.33) 0.002 (0.97) 0.13 (0.03)* 0.022 (0.64) 0.071 (0.15) 0.028 (0.51) 0.031 (0.55) 0.091 (0.13)
  1. Maternal blood lead and toenail mercury were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Tibia lead was measured by K-XRF one month post-partum
  2. Models 2–8 were adjusted for SES
  3. Models 4, 6, and 8 evaluated the interaction between exposures of interest
  4. N = 500
  5. *p ≤ 0.05