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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants for the total population and by different outcomes

From: Proximity to mining industry and respiratory diseases in children in a community in Northern Chile: A cross-sectional study

  Totala Asthma Rhinoc.
N = 275 (n = 66; NAb) (n = 66; NAb)
Potential confounders % n % n %
Sex      
 Female 46 28 22 44 35
 Male 54 38 26 49 33
Age      
 6–7 years 27 14 19 25 34
 8–9 years 31 24 28 25 29
 10–11 year 30 17 21 31 38
  ≥ 12 years 12 11 33 12 36
Living with both parents (NA = 9)      
 No 29 28 35 29 36
 Yes 67 38 21 62 34
Parental atopic disease (NA = 30)      
 No 58 27 17 43 27
 Yes 31 32 38 43 51
Mother working (NA = 14)      
 No 69 54 27 63 33
 Yes 25 11 16 26 38
Father working (NA = 22)      
 No 8 7 32 6 27
 Yes 84 51 22 81 35
Hours child stay at home (NA = 61)      
  < 3 h 7 5 25 5 25
 3-6 h 17 11 24 18 39
  > 6 h 54 44 30 58 39
Place child most of the time (NA = 9)      
 Inside 38 22 21 33 31
 Outside 59 43 27 58 36
Smoking in child’s presence (NA = 28)      
 No 65 44 24 63 35
 Yes 24 19 28 24 36
Paved street near to house (NA = 10)      
 No 21 18 32 19 33
 Yes 76 48 23 74 36
Type of heater (NA = 69)      
 Other 29 21 26 29 36
 Coal and gas 46 34 27 41 33
Gold mine distance      
 1st quartile 25 22 32 28 41
 2nd quartile 25 12 17 20 29
 3rd quartile 26 20 28 22 31
 4th quartile 24 12 18 23 35
Copper mine distance      
 1st quartile 25 21 30 31 45
 2nd quartile 25 14 20 21 30
 3rd quartile 25 14 20 20 29
 4th quartile 25 17 25 21 31
Average distance to both mines      
 1st quartile 25 24 34 31 44
 2nd quartile 25 11 16 21 31
 3rd quartile 25 15 22 19 28
 4th quartile 25 16 24 22 32
  1. Abbreviations: Rhinoc. rhinoconjunctivitis, NA Missing values
  2. a Percentages include the missing values
  3. b Indicates number of participants without any information regarding to the respective disease under study