Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics for 1151 pregnant women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study with at least one exposure measurement

From: Maternal arsenic exposure and gestational diabetes and glucose intolerance in the New Hampshire birth cohort study

  N (%) or mean (SD)  
Variable Normal
(n = 1032)
Glucose Intolerant & GDM
(n = 119)
p-value**
Maternal age at enrollment 30.9 (4.9) 32.2 0.02
Race
 White 1020 (98.8) 113 (95.0) 0.01
Educational attainment
 Less than college 304 (32.9) 32 (32.4)  
 College graduate 362 (39.2) 43 (43.4)  
 Any post-graduate school 258 (27.9) 24 (24.2) 0.48
Relationship status
 Married 787 (85.2) 90 (90.9)  
 Single, separated, divorced 137 (14.8) 9 (9.1) 0.28
Pre-pregnancy BMI* 25.7 (5.6) 28.2 (6.3) <0.0001
Weight gain during pregnancy* 35.3 (14.5) 28.9 (16.3) <0.0001
Parity*
 Nulliparous 428 (41.5) 48 (40.3)  
 1 to 2 530 (51.4) 61 (51.3)  
 3+ 74 (7.2) 10 (8.4) 0.53
Smoke Exposure
 Ever smoked during pregnancy 61 (6.5) 4 (4.0) 0.67
 Exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy 131 (13.9) 14 (14.0) 0.77
Arsenic Exposure
 Well water arsenic (μg/L) 4.2 (13.2); range 0.001–189.3 4.1 (13.0); range 0.005–96.5 0.83
 Well water ≥10 μg/L MCL 81 (10.7) 7 (7.5) 0.48
 Urinary arsenic (μg/L) 5.8 (12.4); range 0.2–288.5 6.5 (15.5); range 0.6–157.3 0.10
 Toenail arsenic (μg/g) 0.1 (0.1); range 0.001–0.7 0.1 (0.1); range 0.009–0.7 0.50
Glucose Control
 Glucose Intolerant 0 105  
 Gestational diabetes 0 14  
  1. *Missing (n)- pre-pregnancy BMI (41), weight gain (42), smoking (110), secondhand smoke (108), school level (128), relationship status (128), urinary arsenic (102), well water arsenic (298), toenail arsenic (373). **Compared using the X 2 test or Fisher’s exact test (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank sum test (for continuous variables)