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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of 1,207 MESA participants

From: Long-term outdoor air pollution and DNA methylation in circulating monocytes: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

  Total New York Maryland Minnesota North Carolina
n (%) or
mean ± SD
n (%) or
mean ± SD
n (%) or
mean ± SD
n (%) or
mean ± SD
n (%) or
mean ± SD
Age (y) 69.6 ± 9.4 69.7 ± 9.7 70.7 ± 9.0 68.5 ± 9.5 71.1 ± 7.0
Race/ethnicity, %
 White 570 (47.2) 82 (20.6) 173 (57.5) 267 (58.4) 48 (94.1)
 Black 256 (21.2) 125 (31.4) 128 (42.5) 0 (0) 3 (5.9)
 Hispanic 381 (31.6) 191 (48.0) 0 (0) 190 (41.6) 0 (0)
Sex, %
 Female 623 (51.6) 231 (58.0) 156 (51.8) 208 (45.5) 28 (54.9)
 Male 584 (48.4) 167 (42.0) 145 (48.2) 249 (54.5) 23 (45.1)
Smoking status, %a
 Never 484 (40.3) 181 (45.8) 120 (40.1) 165 (36.3) 18 (35.3)
 Former 604 (50.3) 184 (46.6) 149 (49.8) 244 (53.6) 27 (52.9)
 Current 112 (9.3) 30 (7.6) 30 (10.0) 46 (10.1) 6 (11.8)
Secondhand smoke, (hours per week)a 3.7 ± 20.5 2.3 ± (11.1) 5.9 ± 35.3 3.3 ± 12.3 5.5 ± 14.2
Body mass index (kg/m2)a 29.7 ± 5.5 29.3 ± 5.6 30.1 ± 5.7 29.8 ± 5.3 28.5 ± 5.8
Physical activity (MET-min/wk m-su)a 5,696.2 ± 7,205.6 5,364.6 ± 7,139.0 5,978.8 ± 9,405.6 5,942.0 ± 5,770.6 4,405.0 ± 3,314.3
Education, %a
 Less than high school 176 (14.6) 94 (23.6) 20 (6.7) 61 (13.3) 1 (2.0)
 High school 236 (19.6) 76 (19.1) 59 (19.7) 95 (20.8) 6 (11.8)
 Some college but no degree 212 (17.6) 68 (17.1) 59 (19.7) 75 (16.4) 10 (19.6)
 Bachelor’s/Associate/Technical 373 (31.0) 99 (24.9) 81 (27.1) 171 (37.4) 22 (43.1)
 Advanced degree 208 (17.3) 61 (15.3) 80 (26.8) 55 (12.0) 12 (23.5)
Income, %a
 <$25,000 297 (25.5) 131 (33.5) 49 (17.3) 110 (24.9) 7 (14.3)
 $25,000–$49,999 371 (31.9) 125 (32.0) 77 (27.2) 150 (34.0) 19 (38.8)
 $50,000–$99,999 333 (28.6) 89 (22.8) 104 (36.7) 125 (28.3) 15 (30.6)
 $100,000 or more 163 (14.0) 46 (11.8) 53 (18.7) 56 (12.7) 8 (16.3)
Neighborhood socioeconomic status factor scorea −0.41 ± 1.09 −1.06 ± 1.42 −0.27 ± 0.85 0.004 ± 0.62 −0.21 ± 0.91
Recent infection, %a
 No 922 (77.2) 293 (73.8) 225 (76.0) 365 (80.8) 39 (78.0)
 Yes 273 (22.8) 104 (26.2) 71 (24.0) 87 (19.2) 11 (22.0)
Folate (mcg)a 317.1 ± 169.2 308.5 ± 162.7 301.9 ± 165.0 333.6 ± 175.6 324.1 ± 175.9
Vitamin B12 (mcg)a 3.9 ± 3.8 4.1 ± 5.1 3.6 ± 3.2 4.0 ± 2.8 3.9 ± 2.8
Vitamin B6 (mg)a 1.5 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.7
Methionine (g)a 1.4 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.8
Zinc (mg)a 8.9 ± 5.2 8.4 ± 4.9 8.3 ± 5.6 9.6 ± 5.2 8.8 ± 4.3
  1. a Contains missing values