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Table 2 Ten most common pesticides usually used by the farmers when spraying their crops (n = 42)

From: The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5% among Nepali farmers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Active ingredient Chemical type Main use WHO Classa Reported use, n (%)
Chlorpyrifos 50% + cypermethrin 5% EC Organophosphate and pyrethroid Insecticide II 38 (90.5)
Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG Macrocyclic lactone Insecticide III 15 (35.7)
Carbendazim 12% + mancozeb 63% WP Benzimidazol and dithiocarbamate Fungicide U 12 (28.6)
Thiamethoxam 25% WG Neonicotinoid Insecticide III 8 (19.0)
Cypermethrin 10% EC Pyrethroid Insecticide II 7 (16.7)
Imidacloprid 17.8% SL Neonicotinoid Insecticide II 7 (16.7)
Dichlorvos 76% EC Organophosphate Insecticide Ib 6 (14.3)
Triazofos 35% + deltamethrin 1% EC Organophosphate and pyrethroid Insecticide II 5 (11.9)
Acetamiprid 20% SP Neonicotinoid Insecticide III 5 (11.9)
Cymoxanil 8% + mancozeb 64% WP Cyanoacetamide oxime and dithiocarbamate Fungicide III 5 (11.9)
  1. aWorld Health Organization (WHO) Pesticide Hazard Classification of pesticide active ingredient: Ib Highly hazardous; II Moderately hazardous; III Slightly hazardous; U Unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use