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Table 1 Demographic and Exposure Characteristics of the New York City Longitudinal Study of Early Development, 1994–1998

From: Early-life exposure to air pollution and greater use of academic support services in childhood: a population-based cohort study of urban children

  Total Population (N = 201,559) BTEX greater than 90th centile for at least one pollutant (N = 26010) BTEX lower than 90th centile for all pollutants (N = 175549) BTEX greater than 90th centile for all pollutants (N = 15514) BTEX lower than 90th centile for at least one pollutant (N = 186045)
Demographic Factor N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Maternal Race
 White, non-Latina 32730 (16.2) 3973 (15.3) 28757 (16.4) 2415 (15.6) 30315 (16.3)
 Black, non-Latina 64353 (31.9) 4309 (16.6) 60044 (34.2) 2611 (16.3) 61742 (33.2)
 Latina 81716 (40.5) 14930 (57.4) 66786 (38.0) 8666 (55.6) 73050 (36.2)
 Asian/Other 22760 (11.3) 2798 (10.8) 19962 (11.4) 1822 (11.7) 20938 (11.3)
Maternal Nativity
 Born in the U.S. 97874 (48.6) 12140 (46.7) 85734 (48.8) 7258 (46.8) 90616 (48.7)
 Maternal Age, years mean (sd) 27.2 (6.4) 27.3 (6.7) 27.2 (6.4) 27.6 (6.8) 27.2 (6.4)
Maternal Education
 0–11 years 69863 (34.7) 9775 (37.6) 60088 (34.2) 5730 (36.9) 64133 (34.5)
 12 years 77735 (38.6) 8936 (34.4) 68799 (39.2) 5094 (32.8) 72641 (39.0)
 13–15 years 32900 (16.3) 3688 (14.2) 29212 (16.6) 2206 (14.2) 30694 (16.5)
 16 or more years 20161 (10.4) 3611 (13.9) 17450 (9.9) 2484 (16.0) 18577 (10.0)
Maternal Insurance at time of Delivery
 Medicaid 131295 (65.1) 18722 (72.0) 112573 (64.1) 11130 (71.7) 120165 (64.6)
 HMO 18728 (9.3) 2106 (8.1) 16622 (9.5) 1321 (8.5) 17407 (9.4)
 Other 3rd Party 41768 (20.7) 4460 (17.1) 37308 (21.3) 2715 (17.5) 39053 (21.0)
 Self-Paid 9768 (4.8) 722 (2.8) 9046 (5.2) 348 (2.3) 9420 (5.1)
Maternal Marital Status
 Married 83693 (41.5) 10210 (39.3) 73483 (41.9) 6140 (39.6) 77553 (41.7)
Maximum Venous Blood Lead (μg/dL)a
 Less than 3 33716 (16.7) 4790 (18.4) 28926 (16.5) 3108 (20.0) 30608 (16.5)
 3- < 5 84289 (41.8) 10784 (41.5) 73505 (41.9) 6364 (41.0) 77925 (41.9)
 5- < 10 71485 (35.5) 9063 (34.8) 62422 (35.6) 5298 (34.1) 66187 (35.6)
 10 and greater 12069 (6.0) 1374 (5.3) 10695 (6.1) 744 (4.8) 11325 (6.1)
  1. aAverage of five imputations