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Table 3 Associationsa between exposure to BTEX pollutants and first use of academic support services, New York City Longitudinal Study of Early Development 1994–1998

From: Early-life exposure to air pollution and greater use of academic support services in childhood: a population-based cohort study of urban children

Pollutant Crude HR 95% CI Adjustedb HR 95% CI Non-movers Adjustedb HR 95% CI
  N = 201559   N = 201559   N = 57025  
Benzene greater than 90th centile 1.13 1.10, 1.17 1.09 1.05, 1.13 1.10 1.04, 1.17
Benzene at or lower than 90th centile 1   1   1  
Toluene greater than 90th centile 1.09 1.05, 1.12 1.06 1.02, 1.09 1.08 1.02, 1.15
Toluene at or lower than 90th centile 1   1   1  
Ethylbenzene greater than 90th centile 1.10 1.07, 1.14 1.06 1.03, 1.10 1.10 1.03, 1.16
Ethylbenzene at or lower than 90th centile 1   1   1  
Xylenes greater than 90th centile 1.10 1.07, 1.14 1.07 1.03, 1.10 1.10 1.04, 1.17
Xylenes at or lower than 90th centile 1   1   1  
BTEX greater than 90th centile for at least one pollutant 1.12 1.09, 1.15 1.08 1.05, 1.11 1.11 1.05, 1.17
BTEX at or lower than 90th centile for all pollutants 1   1   1  
BTEX greater than 90th centile for all pollutants 1.08 1.05, 1.13 1.06 1.02, 1.10 1.09 1.02, 1.16
BTEX at or lower than 90th centile for at least one pollutant 1   1   1  
  1. aCrude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals resulting from discrete hazard models with complementary log-log function
  2. bAdjusted for the following confounders maternal race/ethnicity, maternal nativity, maternal educational attainment, maternal age at delivery, maternal marital status at the time of delivery, maternal insurance coverage at delivery, child’s maximum blood lead level and a neighborhood deprivation index [24], derived from census variables