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Table 1 Main etiologies of premature ovarian insufficiency

From: Environmental pollutants, a possible etiology for premature ovarian insufficiency: a narrative review of animal and human data

Etiologies Characteristics
Genetics: [11]
 - Chromosomal abnormality
 - Genetic mutations
- Monosomy X and mosaicism: Turner syndrome, triploid syndrome, partial deletion and X translocation
- X chromosomes: FMR1 premutation: Fragile X syndrome
- Other chromosomes: FOX L2 (blepharophimosis, ptosis), FSHR, NOBOX, GALT, SF1, GDF1, etc.
Iatrogenic: [12] - Pelvic, ovarian surgery
- Chemotherapy: alkylating agents ++, etc.
- Radiotherapy
Autoimmune disease: [13] - Isolated
- Associated: hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes, Addison’s disease, myasthenia, lupus, etc.
Metabolic: [14] - Congenital galactosemia
- 17-hydroxylase deficiency
Infectious: [15, 16] - HIV infection
- Mumps