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Fig. 3 | Environmental Health

Fig. 3

From: Ozone and childhood respiratory disease in three US cities: evaluation of effect measure modification by neighborhood socioeconomic status using a Bayesian hierarchical approach

Fig. 3

Associations between ozone and pediatric respiratory ED visits by continuous neighborhood SES. Combined meta-regressions were used to examine effect modification of the association between ozone and pediatric respiratory disease by neighborhood SES. Linear, quadratic, and cubic functions of % <12th grade education (a), % below poverty (b), and the NDI (c) were included in combined meta-regressions to examine linear and non-linear effect modification. Solid black lines represent estimated ORs between ozone and pediatric respiratory disease ED visits by ZCTA-specific values of neighborhood SES. Gray polygons represent 95% PIs of the estimated ORs. Histograms below each plot represent the distribution of ZCTA-specific SES values in each city. Dotted black lines represent the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values of neighborhood SES in each city. The y-axis scale on the right side of each graph represents the frequency count of ZCTAs. Abbreviations: ED, Emergency Department; NDI, Neighborhood Deprivation Index; OR, odds ratio; PI, Posterior Intervals; SES, socioeconomic status; ZCTA, Zip Code Tabulation Area. Plots adapted from Gaspirrini et al., 2015 [53]. R code for plots available at https://github.com/gasparrini/2015_gasparrini_Lancet_Rcodedata [54]

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