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Table 2 Exposure limits/guidelines

From: Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettes

Agency Averaging time PM2.5 Nicotineb Acetaldehyde Acetone Ethanol Acetonitrile Isopropyl alcohol Benzene Toluene Reference
OSHA PEL 8-h 15 mg/m3,a 0.5 mg/m3 200 ppm (360 mg/m3) 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) 40 ppm (70 mg/m3) 400 ppm (980 mg/m3) 1 ppm 200 ppm OSHA 2016 [41]
OSHA STEL 15-min NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 5 ppm NA OSHA 2016 [41]
NIOSH REL Up to 10-h NA 0.5 mg/m3 NA 250 ppm (590 mg/m3) 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) 20 ppm (34 mg/m3) 400 ppm (980 mg/m3) 0.1 ppm (0.32 mg/m3) 100 ppm (375 mg/m3) NIOSH 2016 [42]
NIOSH STEL 15-min NA NA NA NA NA NA 500 ppm (1225 mg/m3) 1 ppm 150 ppm NIOSH 2016 [42]
ACGIH TLV 8-h 10 mg/m3 0.5 mg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA 0.5 ppm NA ACGIH 2016 [43]
ACGIH STEL 15-min NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.5 ppm NA ACGIH 2016 [43]
U.S. EPA NAAQS Annual mean 12 μg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAAQS 2012 [44]
24-h 35 μg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAAQS 2012 [44]
WHO AQG Annual mean 10 μg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA WHO 2005 [45]
24-h 25 μg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA WHO 2005 [45]
EU Air Quality Directive Annual mean 25 μg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA NA 5 μg/m3 NA EU 2008 [46]
EU AEI 3-year mean 20 μg/m3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA EEA 2015 [47]
  1. Abbreviations: NA not available, PEL permissible exposure limit, REL recommended exposure limit, TLV threshold limit value, STEL short-term exposure limit, ppm parts per million, OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration, NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, EPA Environmental Protection Agency, NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards, WHO World Health Organization, AQG Air Quality Guideline, AEI Average Exposure Indicator
  2. Occupational exposure limits
  3. Ambient air quality standards
  4. aFor particulates not otherwise regulated (total dust)
  5. bNoted for skin absorption
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