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Table 2 Mean (SD) anogenital distance (AGDas) in mm in boys at three months according to maternal use of antifungal medicine in pregnancy. Beta values represent adjusted mean difference calculated from multiple liniar regeression (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) in AGD in boys whose mothers used antifungal medicine in pregnancy, compared to non-users

From: Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring: a preliminary study

   AGDas
N Mean (SD) mm βa mm 95% CI
No antifungal medicine use (reference) 723 36.1 (5.7) Reference
Vaginal tabletsb 21 35.0 (7.2) −1.9 (−4.3; 0.5)
Only vaginal tabletsc 11 33.5 (7.5) −3.0 (−6.3; 0.3)
 Vaginal tablets in combination with creamc 10 36.7 (6.8) −0.7 (−4.1; 2.8)
 Vaginal tablets in masculinisation programming windowd 11 35.0 (8.1) −2.2 (−5.5; 1.1)
 Vaginal tablets outside the masculinisation programming windowd 10 35.0 (6.4) −1.6 (−5.0; 1.9)
Vaginal creamb only 23 35.9 (6.7) 0.1 (−2.3; 2.4)
Fluconazole oral tablets 4 28.7 (4.2)e −6.4e (−11.9; −0.9)e
Use of antifungal medicine but type not specified 39 35.5 (6.5) −0.9 (−2.7; 0.9)
  1. aAdjusted for age and z-score for weight
  2. bActive ingredients miconazole or clotrimazole
  3. cSub-analysis where antifungal vaginal tablet use (N = 21) has been divided into “only vaginal tablet use” and “vaginal tablet used in combination with cream”
  4. dSub-analysis where antifungal vaginal tablet use (N = 21) has been divided into “Vaginal tablets in masculinization programming window” and “Vaginal tablets outside the masculinization programming window”
  5. e p<0.05 after the adjusted oral tablets