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Table 1 Selected characteristics of the study population at baseline

From: The association between ambient fine particulate matter and incident adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer

Characteristics Non-Cases
(n = 79,880)
Cases
(n = 164)
P-Valve
Age 57.02 ± 14.22 68.07 ± 10.85 <.001
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 12.88 ± 3.72 13.11 ± 3.98 <.001
Ozone 24 h (ppb) 26.88 ± 3.89 27.07 ± 4.22 <.001
Gender    0.730
 Females 52,067 (65.2%) 109 (66.5%)  
 Males 27,813 (34.8%) 55 (33.5%)  
Smoking Status    <.001
 Never Smokers 64,817 (81.1%) 89 (54.3%)  
 Past smokers 15,063 (18.9%) 75 (45.7%)  
Race    0.599
 Blacks 57,461 (71.9%) 121 (73.8%)  
 Non-Blacks 22,419 (28.1%) 43 (26.2%)  
Education    <.001
 High school or less 21,820 (27.3%) 77 (47.0%)  
 Trade school/ associate degree/ some college 27,112 (33.9%) 52 (31.7%)  
 Bachelor degree+ 30,948 (38.7%) 35 (21.3%)  
Family Income    <.001
 Less than $31,000 41,247(51.6%) 110 (67.1%)  
 $31,000–$75,000 23,534 (29.5%) 41 (25.0%)  
 $75,000 or more 15,099 (18.9%) 13 (7.9%)  
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)a    0.280
 Less than 25 30,411 (39.3%) 54 (34.4%)  
 25–29.99 27,034 (34.9%) 64 (40.8%)  
 30 or more 19,993 (25.8%) 39 (24.8%)  
Physical Activity    0.290
 Low 31,401 (39.3%) 74 (45.1%)  
 Medium 33,472 (41.9%) 64 (39.0%)  
 High 15,007 (18.8%) 26 (15.9%)  
Hours Per Day Spent Outdoors    0.003
 Less than 1 h/day 19,508 (24.4%) 39 (23.8%)  
 1–3.5 h/day 45,156 (56.5%) 77 (47.0%)  
 More than 3.5 h/day 15,216 (19.1%) 48 (29.3%)  
Alcohol Statusa    <.001
 Never 46,935 (59.1%) 73 (44.8%)  
 Ever 32,537 (40.9%) 90 (55.2%)  
Residence Lengthb    <.001
 Less than 5 years 19,924 (25.0%) 29 (17.7%)  
 5 ≤ years <12 20,583 (25.8%) 32 (19.5%)  
 12 ≤ years <24 19,713 (24.7%) 43 (26.2%)  
 More than 24 years 19,660 (24.6%) 60 (36.6%)  
Moving Distancec    0.649
 0 KM 48,865 (61.2%) 95 (57.9%)  
 0 < KM ≤30 15,054 (18.9%) 32 (19.5%)  
 More than 30 KM 15,961 (20.0%) 37 (22.6%)  
Years Since Quit Smoking (7 levels)    <.001
 Never smokers 64,817 (81.1%) 89 (54.3%)  
 Quit ≥30 4738 (5.9%) 19 (11.6%)  
 Quit 20–29.9 years 3601 (4.5%) 15 (9.2%)  
 Quit 10–19.9 years 3170 (4.0%) 17 (10.4%)  
 Quit 5–9.9 years 1394 (1.8%) 7 (4.3%)  
 Quit 1–4.9 years 1199 (1.5%) 8 (4.9%)  
 Quit <1 year 961 (1.2%) 9 (5.5%)  
Average Number of Cigarettes Per Day    <.001
 None 64,906 (81.1%) 89 (54.3%)  
 Less than 8.5 7677 (9.6%) 27 (16.5%)  
 Greater or equal to 8.5 7461 (9.3%) 48 (29.3%)  
Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer    <.001
 No 74,529 (93.3%) 142 (86.6%)  
 Yes 5351 (6.7%) 22 (13.4%)  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD or no. (%)
  2. aSome columns do not add to 100% because of missing data
  3. bYears of Pre-Study Residence within 10 miles of Enrollment Address
  4. cDistance of Moving During Follow-up of Initial Place of Residence