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Table 2 Multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident lung adenocarcinoma per 10-μg/m3 increment in mean monthly ambient PM2.5: single- and two-pollutant models. 79,880 AHSMOG-2 subjects (LC cases = 164)

From: The association between ambient fine particulate matter and incident adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer

  Pollutant cases Single Pollutant
HR (95% CI)
Two Pollutanta
HR (95% CI)
Two Pollutantab
HR (95% CI)
Model 1 PM2.5 164 1.31 (0.87, 1.97) 1.31 (0.87, 1.97) 1.31 (0.92, 1.86)
O3   1.01 (0.68, 1.50) 1.01 (0.69, 1.47)
Model 2 PM2.5 164 1.32 (0.88, 1.99) 1.32 (0.88, 2.00) 1.32 (0.93, 1.89)
O3   1.02 (0.68, 1.51) 1.02 (0.70, 1.47)
Model 3
 Outdoors <1 PM2.5 39 0.75 (0.32, 1.75) 0.75 (0.32, 1.75) 0.75 (0.35, 1.61)
 Outdoors ≥1 PM2.5 125 1.55 (0.98, 2.46) 1.55 (0.98, 2.46) 1.55 (1.05, 2.30)
Sensitivity Analysis
Model 4
 Excluding NMSC PM2.5 142 1.62 (1.04, 2.50) 1.62 (1.04, 2.51) 1.62 (1.11, 2.36)
  1. Model 1– Adjusted for gender, educational level, race, and nested covariates: smoking status, years since quit smoking, and average number of cigarettes per day
  2. Model 2–Model 1 + outdoors, residence length, moving distance, NMSC
  3. Model 3–Model 1+ outdoors + PM2.5* outdoors (2 levels of outdoors: <1 & ≥1 h/day)
  4. Model 4–Model 1, but excluding prevalent NMSCaModel [1–4] – adjusted for O3 with increments of 10 ppb
  5. aModel [1–4] – adjusted for O3 with increments of 10 ppb
  6. bModel [1–4] – with Sandwich variance estimate