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Table 3 Result of the multiple logistic regression analysis assessing the association between types of cooking fuel and the risk of different adverse birth and health outcomes

From: Household air pollution from cooking and risk of adverse health and birth outcomes in Bangladesh: a nationwide population-based study

Outcome variable Types of cooking fuel p
Clean fuel Solid fuel
Under five mortality
 n (%) 213 (5.5) 875 (4.6)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.76–1.10) 0.32
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 0.71
Neonatal mortality
 n (%) 139 (3.6) 600 (3.2)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 0.58
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.03 (0.80–1.33) 0.80
Infant mortality
 n (%) 198 (5.1) 791 (4.2)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 0.87
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 0.20
Acute respiratory infection
 n (%) 530 (14.4) 2667 (14.8)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.16 (1.02–1.33) <0.05
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 0.29
Low birth weight
 n (%) 328 (20.9) 2140 (18.0)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.76–1.02)) 0.10
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.81–1.13) 0.63
Pregnancy complication
 n (%) 818 (45.7) 5289 (54.7)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.33 (1.19–1.49) <0.01
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.36 (1.19–1.55) <0.01
Cesarean delivery
 n (%) 431 (13.8) 2479 (15.1)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.29 (1.01–1.64) <0.05
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.24 (0.95–1.60) 0.11
Stillbirth
 n (%) 69 (1.1)) 458 (1.2)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.33 (1.02–1.82) <0.05
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.09 (0.86–1.37) 0.53
  1. n frequency, aOR adjusted odds ratio (controlled for maternal age, education, place of residence, region, socio-economic status, breastfeeding and child sex)