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Fig. 1 | Environmental Health

Fig. 1

From: Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study

Fig. 1

Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), adult-onset asthma and lung cancer in relation to an IQR increases in each pollutant in Toronto, Canada. All models are stratified by one-year age and sex and are adjusted for neighborhood-level covariates including percentage of the population 15 years of age and older with less than a high school education, percentage of the population 15 years of age and older without employment, percentage of recent immigrants, and average household income. For COPD and asthma, comorbid diabetes, CHF, AMI, hypertension, and all cancers were included as covariates. For lung cancer, we included comorbid diabetes, CHF, AMI and hypertension. Models for UFPs are adjusted for NO2 and PM2.5. Models for NO2 are adjusted for PM2.5; PM2.5 models are adjusted for NO2

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