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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of study subjects and their neighborhoods

From: Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study

Characteristics of the cohort COPD Asthma   Lung cancer a
Total cohort population Incident cases Total cohort population Incident cases Total cohort population Incident cases
Number 1,105,258 74,543 1,057,722 87,141 1,039,128 12,908
% 6.7 8.2 1.2
Individual risk factors at time of entry
 Age, years (SD) 51.4 (15.3) 62.2 (13.5) 51.8 (15.4) 51.8 (14.7) 50.7 (14.6) 60.0 (11.0)
 Men (%) 47 52.5 47.8 40.2 46.9 54.9
Pre-existing comorbidity (%)
 Diabetes 6.8 11.4 6.8 7.3 6.3 8.0
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1.7 4.2 2.0 8.0
 Asthma 6 15.2 6.7 8.5
 Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) 0.7 1.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 1.2
 Hypertension 20.8 33.8 20.8 23.4 19.9 26.8
 Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) 1.7 4.4 1.9 1.9 1.2 1.9
 Cancer 3.7 6.6 3.8 3.5 3.0
Area level risk factors from Canadian Census at the census tract level at baseline
 Percentage of the population 15 years of age and older with less than a high school education 32 34.2 31.9 33.3 32.0 33.8
 Percentage of the population 15 years of age and older without employment 10.3 10.9 10.3 10.9 10.3 10.8
 Percentage of recent immigrants 11.1 10.6 11 11.5 11.1 10.8
Average household income with all ages (in $1000 CAN) (SD) 62.1 (37.4) 57.9 (34.8) 62.2 (37.6) 58.9 (35.2) 62.0 (37.3) 57.8 (33.6)
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. aLung cancer cohort was followed from April 1, 2001 to December 31, 2012