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Table 4 Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), adult-onset asthma and lung cancer in relation to an IQR increases in each pollutant in Toronto, Canada

From: Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study

Exposure Model COPD (1996–2012) Asthma (1996–2012) Lung cancer a (2001–2012)
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
UFPs UFPs only b 0.96 0.95 0.97 1.02 1.01 1.02 0.97 0.95 0.99
+ Neighborhood-level covariates c 0.95 0.94 0.96 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.97 0.95 0.99
+ frailty term for neighborhoods 1.06 1.04 1.08 1.01 1.00 1.02 1.00 0.97 1.03
+ Medical comorbidities d 1.06 1.04 1.08 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.00 0.97 1.04
+ PM2.5 e 1.07 1.05 1.09 1.01 1.00 1.02 1.00 0.97 1.04
+ NO2 e 1.01 0.98 1.03 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.98 0.94 1.01
+ PM2.5 and NO2 e 1.01 0.98 1.03 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.98 0.95 1.01
PM2.5 PM2.5 only 1.07 1.06 1.09 1.01 1.00 1.02 1.09 1.06 1.12
+ Neighborhood-level covariates d 1.10 1.08 1.11 1.02 1.01 1.04 1.11 1.07 1.14
+ frailty term for neighborhoods 1.06 1.04 1.08 1.02 1.00 1.04 1.05 1.03 1.08
+ Medical comorbidities 1.06 1.04 1.08 1.02 1.00 1.04 1.05 1.03 1.08
+ NO2 e 1.04 1.02 1.07 1.01 1.00 1.03 1.04 1.02 1.07
NO2 NO2 only 1.10 1.09 1.11 1.04 1.03 1.05 1.09 1.06 1.11
+ Neighborhood-level covariates d 1.06 1.05 1.07 1.03 1.02 1.03 1.06 1.04 1.08
+ frailty term for neighborhoods 1.11 1.07 1.15 1.03 1.02 1.05 1.07 1.04 1.10
+ Medical comorbidities 1.11 1.07 1.15 1.03 1.02 1.05 1.07 1.04 1.10
+ PM2.5 e 1.12 1.08 1.15 1.03 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.05 1.11
  1. aCohort for lung cancer was followed up from April 1, 2001 to December 31, 2012 and a 5-year lag in exposure was used
  2. bStratified by one-year age and sex
  3. cNeighborhood-level covariates include percentage of the population 15 years of age and older with less than a high school education, percentage of the population 15 years of age and older without employment, percentage of recent immigrants, and average household income
  4. dFor COPD and asthma, we included comorbid diabetes, CHF, AMI, hypertension and all cancer; For lung cancer, we included comorbid diabetes, CHF, AMI and hypertension
  5. eFully adjusted models