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Table 5 Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), adult-onset asthma, and lung cancer across quintiles of ambient UFP concentrations in Toronto, Canada

From: Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study

Exposure COPD Asthma Lung cancer
HR 95%CI HR 95%CI HR 95%CI
Single Pollutant Model
 UFPs (by quintiles) a
  Q1 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Q2 1.05 1.03 1.09 1.04 1.01 1.06 0.97 0.90 1.03
  Q3 1.12 1.08 1.15 1.05 1.02 1.08 1.00 0.92 1.07
  Q4 1.16 1.13 1.19 1.06 1.03 1.09 1.03 0.95 1.10
  Q5 1.12 1.08 1.17 1.06 1.03 1.10 0.96 0.87 1.05
Adjusted for NO 2 and PM 2.5
 UFPs a
  Q1 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Q2 1.04 1.02 1.07 1.03 1.01 1.06 0.95 0.89 1.02
  Q3 1.08 1.05 1.11 1.04 1.01 1.06 0.97 0.90 1.04
  Q4 1.10 1.06 1.13 1.04 1.01 1.07 0.99 0.92 1.07
  Q5 1.03 0.98 1.08 1.03 0.99 1.07 0.91 0.82 1.00
  1. aHazard ratios by quintiles of distributions were estimated in the single-pollutant models stratified by age and sex and adjusted for medical comorbidities and neighborhood-level variables. For COPD, quintiles of UFPs: Q1, ≤ 21,473; Q2, 21,473–24,349; Q3, 24,349–27,813; Q4, 27,813–34,763; Q5, > 34,763 count/cm3. For asthma, quintiles of UFPs: Q1, ≤ 21,459; Q2, 21,459–24,325; Q3, 24,325–27,788; Q4, 27,788–34,726; Q5, > 34,726 count/cm3. For lung cancer, quintiles of UFPs: Q1, ≤ 21,464; Q2, 21,464–24,329; Q3, 24,329–27,793; Q4, 27,793–34,758; Q5, > 34,758 count/cm3