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Table 6 Hazard ratios and 95% CI for the associations of incident COPD, adult-onset asthma, and lung cancer with an IQR increase in each pollutant by age and sex in Toronto, Canada

From: Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study

Covariates No. of cases UFPs PM2.5 NO2
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
COPD
 Age <60 28,854 1.07 1.04 1.11 1.05 1.02 1.08 1.14 1.11 1.17
60–74 32,092 1.00 0.97 1.03 1.06 1.03 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.11
> = 75 13,597 1.01 0.98 1.04 1.08 1.05 1.11 1.02 0.99 1.05
 Sex Men 39,111 1.04 1.01 1.06 1.07 1.05 1.10 1.10 1.07 1.14
Women 35,432 1.06 1.03 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.09 1.10 1.05 1.14
Asthma
 Age <60 58,934 1.01 1.00 1.02 1.01 0.99 1.03 1.04 1.02 1.06
60–74 21,754 1.00 0.98 1.02 1.04 1.02 1.07 1.03 1.01 1.05
 Sex > = 75 6453 1.01 0.97 1.05 1.02 0.98 1.06 1.00 0.97 1.04
Men 35,019 1.02 1.00 1.04 1.02 1.00 1.03 1.03 1.01 1.04
Women 52,122 1.00 0.98 1.01 1.03 1.01 1.04 1.03 1.01 1.05
Lung Cancer
 Age <60 5891 1.00 0.96 1.04 1.04 1.01 1.08 1.04 1.01 1.08
60–74 5969 1.00 0.97 1.03 1.05 1.03 1.08 1.07 1.04 1.10
 Sex > = 75 1048 1.01 0.93 1.09 1.04 0.98 1.10 1.02 0.93 1.10
Men 7085 1.00 0.96 1.04 1.06 1.02 1.09 1.09 1.05 1.12
Women 5823 0.98 0.93 1.03 1.06 1.03 1.10 1.06 1.02 1.10
  1. All models are stratified by age and sex, include a frailty term for neighborhoods, and are adjusted for neighborhood-level covariates