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Table 1 Distribution of urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA across pregnancy (μg/L)

From: Impact of phthalate and BPA exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility on reproductive hormones and sexual maturation in peripubertal males

   Visit 1 (n = 199) Visit 2 (n = 200) Visit 3 (n = 225) Prenatal GM (n = 229) Variability
All % < LODa GM (GSD) Max GM (GSD) Max GM (GSD) Max GM (GSD) Max ICC (95% CI)
 BPAb 23.6 1.0 (2.5) 9.3 1.0 (2.4) 13.2 0.7 (2.30 18.7 0.89 (2.0 6.9 0.32 (0.24, 0.41)
 MEHP 8.0 4.9 (2.8) 125 4.7 (2.9) 152 5.0 (2.8) 215 5.0 (2.2) 215 0.25 (0.17, 0.35)
 MEHHP 0 16.6 (3.1) 158 17.4 (3.2) 1290 19.6 (2.9) 383 18.6 (2.3) 383 0.23 (0.15, 0.33)
 MEOHPb 0 8.9 (3.1) 85.0 10.4 (3.2) 730 11.8 (2.9) 244 10.8 (2.3) 244 0.23 (0.15, 0.33)
 MECPP 0.2 30.0 (2.7) 252 31.9 (2.7) 2650 31.9 (2.7) 414 32.3 (2.1) 414 0.26 (0.18, 0.36)
 MBzPb 3.2 2.6 (4.0) 69.6 2.4 (3.6) 38.5 4.2 (2.6) 109 3.2 (2.4) 34.5 0.21 (0.14, 0.31)
 MBP 0.3 59.0 (4.1) 1340 49.0 (3.8) 1390 54.5 (3.4) 1190 56.0 (2.6) 468 0.28 (0.20, 0.38)
 MiBPb 22.0 0.92 (4.7) 118 0.7 (4.6) 26.5 1.9 (2.9) 40.1 1.2 (2.9) 32.4 0.31 (0.23, 0.40)
 MCPP 8.0 1.1 (2.9) 17.8 1.1 (2.8) 15.0 1.1 (2.7) 12.1 1.1 (2.2) 6.6 0.31 (0.23, 0.40)
 MEP 0.3 138 (4.2) 4480 119 (3.9) 4980 112 (4.2) 9810 126 (3.1) 2285 0.41 (0.33, 0.50)
 ΣDEHPc   0.21 (2.7) 1.7 0.22 (2.9) 16.0 0.24 (2.7) 4.3 0.23 (2.1) 4.3 0.24 (0.16, 0.34)
 ΣDBPd   0.27 (4.1) 6.1 0.23 (3.7) 6.3 0.26 (3.3) 5.4 0.26 (2.6) 2.2 0.28 (0.20, 0.38)
   Visit 1 (n = 92) Visit 2 (n = 91) Visit 3 (n = 108) Prenatal GM (n = 109) Variability
Males % < LOD GM (GSD) Max GM (GSD) Max GM (GSD) Max GM (GSD) Max ICC (95% CI)
 BPAb 26.8 0.93 (2.5) 7.9 0.87 (2.3) 9.2 0.64 (2.3) 9.0 0.81 (1.9) 4.5 0.28 (0.17, 0.42)
 MEHP 7.9 4.8 (2.6) 53.0 4.4 (2.8) 50.3 5.0 (2.9) 215 5.0 (2.2) 215 0.28 (0.17, 0.43)
 MEHHP 0 15.6 (3.4) 150 15.7 (3.0) 85.0 19.9 (2.9) 383 18.0 (2.3) 383 0.15 (0.06, 0.33)
 MEOHPb 0 8.3 (3.3) 80.2 9.4 (3.0) 53.5 12.0 (2.8) 244 10.4 (2.3) 244 0.15 (0.06, 0.33)
 MECPP 0.3 28.5 (2.9) 227 29.4 (2.5) 134 32.7 (2.5) 414 31.5 (2.1) 414 0.15 (0.05, 0.33)
 MBzPb 3.4 2.4 (4.3) 51.3 2.5 (3.8) 34.5 4.3 (2.5) 32.5 3.3 (2.5) 34.5 0.15 (0.06, 0.33)
 MBP 0.7 54.1 (4.2) 870 42.3 (3.7) 655 53.9 (3.1) 1000 53.0 (2.6) 468 0.24 (0.14, 0.40)
 MiBPb 25.1 0.76 (4.7) 118 0.62 (4.5) 25.8 1.7 (2.8) 40.1 1.1 (2.9) 32.4 0.32 (0.21, 0.46)
 MCPP 7.2 1.1 (2.7) 9.8 1.1 (2.7) 8.2 1.1 (2.6) 12.1 1.1 (2.1) 6.0 0.27 (0.16, 0.41)
 MEP 0.3 128 (4.2) 3260 117 (3.6) 2160 110 (3.7) 7950 124 (3.0) 2285 0.47 (0.36, 0.60)
 ΣDEHPc   0.20 (2.9) 1.6 0.20 (2.7) 0.93 0.24 (2.6) 4.3 0.22 (2.1) 4.3 0.14 (0.05, 0.32)
 ΣDBPd   0.25 (4.1) 4.5 0.20 (3.7) 3.0 0.25 (3.1) 4.5 0.25 (2.6) 2.1 0.25 (0.15, 0.40)
  1. LOD limit of detection, GM geometric mean of samples collected during pregnancy, GSD geometric standard deviation, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, CI confidence interval
  2. aLODs: BPA = 0.4, MEHP, MEP = 1.0, MEHHP, MEOHP = 0.1, MECPP, MBzP, MiBP, MCPP = 0.2, MBP = 0.5; bConcentrations were significantly different across prenatal visits (p < 0.05); cΣDEHP = molecular sum of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, and MECPP (μmol/L); dΣDBP = molar sum of MnBP and MiBP (μmol/L)