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Table 2 Percent difference in peripubertal hormone levels associated with an IQR increase in phthalate metabolite or BPA concentration during trimester-specific in utero developmenta

From: Impact of phthalate and BPA exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility on reproductive hormones and sexual maturation in peripubertal males

  Visit 1 (n = 91) Visit 2 (n = 90) Visit 3 (n = 107) Prenatal GM (n = 108)
  %Δ/IQR (95% CI) %Δ/IQR (95% CI) %Δ/IQR (95% CI) %Δ/IQR (95% CI)
Estradiol
 BPA −1.1 (−10.8, 9.7) −4.5 (−14.2, 6.2) 0.1 (−9.1, 10.2) −2.4 (−13.7, 10.4)
 MBzP 5.0 (−3.5, 14.3) 0.7 (−9.2, 11.8) −2.0 (−11.7, 8.8) 3.6 (−7.4, 16.0)
 MCPP 5.3 (−6.2, 18.3) 3.4 (−9.8, 18.6) 3.7 (−5.7, 14.1) 6.2 (−7.4, 21.8)
 MEP 3.0 (−7.9, 15.2) −15.0 (−25.1, −3.6)* −0.6 (−10.2, 10.2) −3.4 (−14.6, 9.4)
 ΣDEHP 11.2 (1.5, 21.9)* 8.2 (−3.2, 21.0) 4.6 (−4.8, 14.9) 11.2 (−1.4, 25.3)
 ΣDBP 8.5 (−0.7, 18.5) −5.8 (−15.4, 4.8) 7.6 (−2.6, 18.7) 6.5 (−5.5, 20.1)
Testosterone
 BPA 9.0 (−16.6, 42.3) 14.8 (−12.3, 50.4) 10.1 (−16.7, 45.5) 33.4 (−6.1, 89.4)
 MBzP 17.1 (−5.9, 45.7) −2.5 (−25.1, 27.0) 3.1 (−23.9, 39.7) 14.6 (−17.1, 58.5)
 MCPP 9.9 (−18.8, 48.6) 14.8 (−18.8, 62.4) 9.5 (−17.1, 44.6) 27.2 (−14.2, 88.7)
 MEP 30.3 (−2.0, 73.2) −2.8 (−30.3, 35.6) −8.2 (−31.8, 23.5) 6.6 (−25.4, 52.5)
 ΣDEHP 10.8 (−13.1, 41.4) 2.5 (−23.1, 36.5) 8.4 (−17.6, 42.7) 20.1 (−15.2, 70.1)
 ΣDBP 4.8 (−17.0, 32.4) −2.9 (−26.1, 27.7) −9.3 (−32.1, 21.2) −0.3 (−29.6, 41.2)
SHBG
 BPA −0.8 (−11.1, 10.6) 4.7 (−6.2, 16.9) 5.3 (−5.0, 16.8) 5.6 (−7.4, 20.5)
 MBzP 5.1 (−3.9, 14.9) −1.2 (−11.3, 10.0) 15.2 (3.2, 28.5)* 10.2 (−2.2, 24.2)
 MCPP 4.6 (−7.4, 18.3) −2.3 (−15.2, 12.5) 14.4 (3.5, 26.5)* 12.5 (−2.8, 30.2)
 MEP 3.4 (−8.1, 16.3) −2.8 (−15.0, 11.3) 4.6 (−6.4, 16.8) 4.2 (−8.8, 19.0)
 ΣDEHP −0.2 (−9.7, 10.2) 1.9 (−9.3, 14.4) 8.4 (−2.1, 19.9) 8.2 (−4.9, 23.1)
 ΣDBP 1.1 (−8.0, 11.2) −6.5 (−16.2, 4.4) 12.3 (1.1, 24.9)* 5.2 (−7.6, 19.7)
DHEA-S
 BPA 3.5 (−10.8, 20.0) −12.1 (−23.9, 1.6) 1.2 (−12.4, 16.9) −1.9 (−18.4, 18.0)
 MBzP −0.9 (−12.3, 12.1) −15.9 (−26.8, −3.4)* −4.4 (−18.3, 11.8) −11.9 (−25.5, 4.0)
 MCPP −2.3 (−17.4, 15.5) −7.4 (−23.3, 11.8) −5.0 (−17.6, 9.7) −6.0 (−23.5, 15.4)
 MEP −4.9 (−19.0, 11.7) −9.2 (−24.1, 8.6) −7.7 (−20.8, 7.5) −9.4 (−24.7, 8.9)
 ΣDEHP 0.9 (−11.9, 15.5) −4.4 (−18.2, 11.7) −0.1 (−13.3, 15.1) 0.5 (−16.2, 20.5)
 ΣDBP −1.1 (−13.1, 12.6) −7.3 (−20.0, 7.5) −13.5 (−25.3, 0.2) −10.8 (−25.4, 6.7)
Inhibin B
 BPA 3.0 (−7.7, 14.8) 11.8 (0.4, 24.6)* −1.8 (−12.0, 9.6) 8.8 (−5.2, 24.9)
 MBzP 2.7 (−6.1, 12.4) −2.9 (−12.8, 8.1) −6.5 (−17.0, 5.3) −5.6 (−16.8, 7.2)
 MCPP 4.2 (−7.8, 17.8) 8.4 (−5.9, 24.7) −0.9 (−11.2, 10.6) 4.9 (−10.2, 22.5)
 MEP −1.6 (−12.6, 10.7) −1.3 (−13.9, 13.0) −13.6 (−22.9, −3.2)* −8.8 (−20.6, 4.9)
 ΣDEHP 8.1 (−2.0, 19.3) 7.0 (−4.7, 20.2) −2.9 (−12.8, 8.2) 5.1 (−8.3, 20.5)
 ΣDBP 2.9 (−6.4, 13.2) 8.3 (−3.0, 21.0) −4.1 (−14.4, 7.5) 2.3 (−10.7, 17.2)
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. aAdjusted for child age, BMI z-score, and urinary specific gravity