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Table 1 Carcinogenicity classifications and sources of exposures for hormones in pharmaceuticals and personal care products

From: State of the evidence 2017: an update on the connection between breast cancer and the environment

Product IARC NTP Source of exposure
Diethylstilbestrol 1 K Formerly prescribed to pregnant women to sustain viable pregnancies
Hormone Replacement Therapy 1   Treatment of symptoms experienced in menopause
 Conjugated equine estrogens 2A  
 Medroxyprogesterone acetate   
 Bioidentical hormones 1  
Oral contraceptives 1   Contraception
Infertility treatment drugs    Infertility treatment
 Clomiphene citrate 1  
 Gonadotropins   
Hormones in personal care products 1   Use of placental extracts in personal care products, especially products marketed to women of color
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifications: 1 = Carcinogenic to humans, 2A = Probably carcinogenic to humans, 2B = Possibly carcinogenic to humans, 3 = Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans; U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classifications: K = Known to be a human carcinogen, RA = Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Source of exposure list contains most common exposure sources