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Table 2 Carcinogenicity classifications and sources of exposures for endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs)

From: State of the evidence 2017: an update on the connection between breast cancer and the environment

EDC IARC NTP Sources of exposure
Bisphenol A    Polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins linked food cans, dental sealants, thermal receipts
Phthalates    Fragrance ingredients in personal care and cleaning products, plastics. Also pharmaceuticals, building materials, insecticides and food packaging/food processing.
 di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 2B RA
 di-n-butylphthalate (DNP/DBP)   
 monoethyl phthalate (MEHP)   
 diethyl phthalate (DEP)   
 butyl benzyl phthalate, (BBP) 3  
 di-n-octyl phthalate, (DOP)   
 di-i-butyl phthalate (DiBP)   
 monomethyl phthalate   
Parabens    Antimicrobial preservatives in food, personal care products, soaps and detergents, and pharmaceuticals
Alkylpenols    Detergents and cleaning products, antioxidants in plastic and rubber products
 4-nonylphenol (4-NP)   
 4-octylphenol (4-OP)   
Triclosan & Triclocarban    Antimicrobials in liquid hand soap, other personal care products and household items
EDCs found in sunscreens    UV filters
 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC)   
 octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA)   
 benzophenone-3 (Bp-3)   
 homosalate (HMS)   
Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) & Perfluorooctanoic Sulfate (PFOS) 2B   Stain resistant coatings, non-stick coatings, commercial products including firefighting foams.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)   RA Byproducts of combustion resulting from fossil fuel production, diesel exhaust, grilled meats, cigarettes.
 benz[a]anthracene 2B RA
 benzo[a]pyrene 1 RA
Triazine herbicides    Weed control for corn and sorghum crops.
Other Pesticides & Herbicides
 Heptachlor 2B   Insecticide, now banned
 Dieldrin and Aldrin 2A   Insecticide for corn and cotton, now banned
 Chlordane 2B   Home termites, general crop pesticide
 Malathion 2A   Residential, recreational, crop pesticide
 2,4-D 2B   Broadleaf weed herbicide
 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4,5-TP)    Woody plant and broadleaf weed herbicide, now banned
Persistent organochlorines
 Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)/DDE 2A RA Insecticide, now banned
 PCBs 1 RA Electrical insulation, fluid coolants, plasticizer in paints, dyes & inks
 Dioxins: 2,3,7,8-tetra chlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) 1   Byproduct of burning of chlorine-based chemicals
 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDEs)    Flame retardants, previously used in furniture and electronics; most have been banned or voluntarily phased out
Aromatic amines
 o-toluidine 1 K Hair dyes
 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) 1 K Azo dyes in textiles
 p-phenylenediamine    Hair dyes
 2-amino-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)    Cooked meats
 heterocyclic aromatic amines    Hair dyes
Metals    Naturally occurring elements; contaminants in naturally derived colorants, clays, and other metals, found in cosmetics, toys, and other products.
 Cobalt PO RA
 Nickel PO  
 Lead 2B RA
 Methylmercury 2B  
 Cadmium 1 K
 Iron 1  
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifications: 1 = Carcinogenic to humans, 2A = Probably carcinogenic to humans, 2B = Possibly carcinogenic to humans, 3 = Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans; U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classifications: K = Known to be a human carcinogen, RA = Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Source of exposure list contains most common exposure sources